The pulses could travel all the way upward and reach the top of the solar chromospheric
layers, or, even beyond.'
To observe the chromosphere, a team led by Paul Bryans, Phil Judge, and Steven Tomczyk (High Altitude Observatory) measured what is called the chromospheric
temperature, however, changes in a completely unexpected way: above the temperature minimum, it begins to rise to as high as 25,000 K at the top of the chromospheric
"It would be difficult for us to distinguish such purposeful, nefarious camouflage from naturally occurring chromospheric
Alfvenic waves strong enough to power the solar wind.
All these observations stimulated the modeling of KH instability in moving twisted magnetic flux tubes in nonmagnetic environment , in magnetic tubes of partially ionized plasma , in spicules [64-66], in photospheric tubes , in high-temperature and cool surges [68, 69], in dark mottles , at the boundary of rising coronal mass ejections [60, 61, 71, 72], in rotating, tornado-like magnetized jets , and in a chromospheric
jet (fast disappearance of rapid red-shifted and blue-shifted excursions alongside a larger scale H[alpha] jet) .
(iii) In between, there is a transition from predominantly chromospheric
to transition region radiation and finally to predominantly coronal emission.
Such a model can account for the presence of both He I and He II emission lines in the chromospheric
 that is made between a photospheric and a chromospheric
On Aug 8 a spectacular 'horned' dark filament graced the SE quadrant which was still present the following day, matching the alignment of chromospheric
disturbance in the SW quadrant.
They cover interior, convection, and dynamo, the formation and evolution of sunspots and active regions; flux emergence and submergence; waves, reconnection, and chromospheric
and coronal heating; magnetic fields as structuring agents of the solar atmosphere; flares, eruptions, and particle acceleration; solar wind and the interplanetary space; and Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory.