Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the most common nonbacterial illness linked with eating fish, arises from the ciguatoxin
produced by Gambierdiscus algae in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific, Western Atlantic, and Indian oceans.
is a poisonous organic compound often found on seaweed and algae eaten by small fish.
The chemical structure of YTX is closely related to other ladder-shaped polyethers like ciguatoxin
(CTXs), maitotoxin, brevetoxins (PbTXs), and some diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs).
argus never developed because it turned out to be a carrier of ciguatoxin
, the agent of ciguatera fish poisoning (Dierking and Campora, 2009).
In serious cases, calcium gluconate, which acts as a substrate against competitive inhibition of calcium by the ciguatoxin
, is typically recommended.
Scientists at the University of Hawaii are developing new methods for detecting ciguatoxin
, a potent marine toxin produced by microscopic algae, in fish and humans.
Sira Technologies has held the patent on a solid-phase immunobead assay (S-PIA) that has been used successfully in detecting ciguatoxin
and okadaic acid.
Fish can harbor naturally occurring toxins such as scombrotoxin and ciguatoxin
, while shellfish can play host to microbial hazards such as Vibrio bacteria or noroviruses.
Relevant jury verdicts in the WLN databases were identified by searching for the general classification term "food poisoning" and the names of common foodborne pathogens and illnesses (botulism, Campylobacter, campylobacteriosis, ciguatera, ciguatoxin
, Clostridium, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, E.
and Any of the following signs and symptoms Memory loss or Confusion or Acute skin burning on direct contact with water or Three or more of the following: Headaches Skin rash Eye irritation Upper respiratory tract irritation Muscle cramps Gastrointestinal complaints Nausea/vomiting TABLE 2 Human Illness Associated With Marine Phytoplankton (28-30) Condition Distribution Toxin(s) Ciguatera fish Pantropical Ciguatoxin
and 5 other poisoning toxins; finfish concentrate and remain toxic 2 years; 50,000 cases/year Paralytic shellfish Subarctic to tropic Saxitoxin (blocks Na+ poisoning (primarily American channels) and [greater Samoa, Calif.
Other dinollagellates that live in association with seaweeds on coral reefs produce ciguatoxin
, which takes a similar shape and attacks the same channel.
Section two, on polyether toxins in seafood poisoning, includes articles on the molecular basis of ciguatoxin
action; detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of brevetoxins; X-ray crystallographic studies of marine toxins; and effects of maitotoxin on smooth and cardiac muscle.