In 1944, with the help of a researcher, he synthesized manmade quinine for malaria treatment, bypassing the need for by-then-scarce cinchona bark
. After the discovery of a second type of tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Woodward's research pinpointed the drug's molecular structure, allowing it to be made synthetically.
The result was Pine and Sudachi Tonic, which is a classic combination in Japanese cooking, combining pine needles, cinchona bark
, coriander, fennel seed, star anise and pepper with juice from the sour Japanese citrus.
In 1856, William Perkins, a London chemist, was trying to synthesise quinine, a malaria treatment made from cinchona bark
Not long after French scientists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaime Caventou isolated quinine from cinchona bark
in 1820, the governments of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru unsuccessfully attempted to embargo the exportation of cinchona seeds, seedlings, or trees.
Struck by the bitter taste of willow bark, and so likening it to cinchona bark
because of the taste, he wondered if it would have similar medicinal actions.
Fernet Branca, for example, is infused with myrrh, saffron, gentian root, cinchona bark
and orris root to name a few of its exotic ingredients.