salicylic acid, nicotinamide (NIC), glutaric acid, malonic acid, benzoic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, urea, succinic acid, saccharine sodium, Pluronic 68 AR, magnesium stearate, crotonic acid, P-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeine, 3,5 dihydroxy benzoic acid, piperazine citrate, cinnamic acid
, adipic acid, hydroquinone, isonicotinic acid, acetamide, maleic acid, and ascorbic acid.
'Imli' (Tamarind) contains many volatile phytochemicals such as limonene, geraniol, safrole, cinnamic acid
, methyl salicylate, pyrazine and alkylthiazoles.
"We also add Isoamyl P-methoxycinnamate, which is derived from cinnamic acid
found in the leaves of the cinnamon tree and provides natural protection against UVB radiation."
In terms of chemical, the market has been segmented into stilbene, coumarin, diphenyl pyrazoline, and others (including dicarboxylic acid and cinnamic acid
Phenolic acids are divided into 2 types: 1-) Benzoic acid and derivates, 2-) Cinnamic acid
and derivates a)Benzoic acid and derivates: The concentration of hydroxybenzoic acid in plants is usually very small, a certain amount of it is found in red fruits, onion and black radish (4).
The extract of each plant contained Gallic Acid, Catechin, Coffeic Acid, Syringic Acid, Rutin, Coumaric Acid, Vanillin, Quercetin but cinnamic acid
found in methanolic extract of S.
is [alpha], [beta]-unsaturated aromatic fatty acid which is common in plants and is used as a sweetener (Hoskins, 1984).
Liang, Interaction of cinnamic acid
derivatives with [beta]-cyclodextrin in water: Experimental and molecular modeling studies, Food.Chem., 194, 1156 (2016).
Stock standard solutions were prepared by accurately weighing 10 mg of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, cinnamic acid
, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, rutin, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, catechin, vanillin, trans-chalcone, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, and 3,4-dihydropyran reference standards into separate 2 ml volumetric flasks and dissolving in methanol.
Enzyme activity was expressed by the amount of cinnamic acid
produced in [micro]mol/mg-protein/h.
PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; CNL, cinnamoyl-CoA ligase; C4H, cinnamic acid
4-hydroxylase; C3H, p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase; 4CL, 4-coumaroyl:CoAligase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHR, chalcone reductase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; F3H, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; F3'H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase; FLS, flavonol synthase; UFGT, UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase; FLS, flavonol synthase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; LAR, leucoanthocyanidin reductase; ANS, anthocyanidin synthase; ANR, anthocyanidin reductase; IFS, isoflavone synthase; IOMT, isoflavone O-methyltransferase; I3'H, isoflavone 3'-hydroxylase; I2'H, isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase.
Chlorogenic acids are phenolic acids that result from the esterification of quinic acid (QA) and cinnamic acid
(CA) derivatives including caffeic, sinapic, and ferulic acid .