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Related to circulatory overload: air embolism
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Noun1.hypervolemia - a blood disorder consisting of an increase in the volume of circulating blood
blood disease, blood disorder - a disease or disorder of the blood
hypovolaemia, hypovolemia - a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
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In USA 3.9% of all blood transfusions used during orthopedic surgery are during knee arthroplasty.1,2 This increase in perioperative blood transfusions has resulted in a rise in mortality and morbidity rates.1,3 Complications that may develop perioperatively in patients having blood transfusions include hemolytic and allergic reactions during surgery, transfusion-associated acute lung damage, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, graft versus host disease and infection.4,5 A further complication of perioperative blood transfusions mentioned in many studies, is kidney dysfunction.6-8 During our literature search, we found many studies looking at the effects of perioperative blood transfusions.
In addition, thiazide or loop diuretics may be needed in women with circulatory overload and in those with pulmonary edema.
Figure 4: Types of adverse transfusion reactions (acute and delayed) Type of transfussion reactions Febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions 88.76 Anaphylactic reactions 2.25 Transfusion siderosis 2.25 Circulatory overload 2.25 Haemolytic transfusion reaction 1.12 Allergic - urticaria 1.12 septicemia 1.12 Transfusion related acute lung injury 1.12 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Development of circulatory overload and hydrostatic pulmonary edema is attributed to the acute shift of a substantial volume of fluid from the intracellular into the extracellular compartment.
Besides incompatible blood transfusion leading to the hemolytic transfusion reaction, other transfusion reactions occurring in the recipients of blood transfusion are febrile reactions, allergic and anaphylactic reactions, circulatory overload, rarely immunologic complications, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

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