78) Although international law has complex origins and precursors, not until the nineteenth century did it become a profession and legal subdiscipline: Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1060 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Through their embrace of Soviet nationality policy, Moscow's Romani activists assumed the Bolshevik mission to incarnate the merger between civilizer
The issue at stake here can be elaborated by attending to the The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations, (131) in which Martti Koskenniemi tells a fascinating story about the "rise and fall of international law" out of the interaction between politics, legal practice, and scholarship.
Britain's role as civilizer
is neither permanent nor stable.
By offering, on several occasions, opponents a chance to surrender, by sparing the conq uered and creating them well, by using nonviolent means (wine and dance) to convert, by founding cities and leaving communities of converts behind, Dionysus was able to appear a genuine civilizer
and thus keep faith with the idealism of his followers.
13) Voir Martii Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
In a more recent work, Koskenniemi argues that international law stands to promote formalism, which embodies a "culture of resistance to power, a social practice of accountability, openness, and equality whose status cannot be reduced to the political positions of any one of the parties whose claims are treated within it" (The Gentler Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) at 500).
See MARTTI KOSKENNIEMI, THE GENTLE CIVILIZER
OF NATIONS: THE RISE AND FALL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1870-1960, at 492 (2001) (urging steadfast adherence in the face of pressure from imperial pressure).
Neihardt, being "essentially a Christianizer and civilizer
," saw the future of Native Americans to lie in assimilation and the rejection of the "old ways" (1985, 129).
Without necessarily embracing an essentialist approach that would take for granted the supreme value of the mother as civilizer
, Emecheta clearly endorses the vision offered by Shaw of women's autonomous communal activity as a source of strength.
Voir aussi Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001 a la p 103; Tuska Benes, << From Indo-Germans to Aryans: Philology and the Racialization of Salvationalist National Rethoric, 1806-1830 >> dans Sara Eigen et Mark Larrimore, dir, The German Invention of Race, Albany, State University of New York Press, 2006, 167 a la p 168.
Koskenniemi M (2001) The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960.