Using the principles of cladistic
classification, we can think of subspecies as (groups of) ancestor-descendant sequences of breeding populations that share a common origin.
4) Hybridization violates the assumptions of cladistic
The phylogenetic relationship among a taxonomically broad sample of 42 species of Dalechampia (about one-half the New World species) was estimated by conducting cladistic
analysis of 54 morphological characters using PAUP 3.
Because of this assumption, previous cladistic
or computer analyses of the relationships between turtles and other reptiles based on bone characteristics only have included those reptiles living in the Paleozoic time period, which ended 225,000,000 years ago.
analysis of the bee species involved allowed me to trace the host-plant specializations in an evolutionary context (see Armbruster 1992) and to address the question of whether oligolecty or polylecty represents the derived foraging strategy in this bee group.
From these differences, I am creating a cladistic
tree - a schematic that tells how closely related they are.
For example, Moulds (2005, 2012) employed cladistic
methodologies analyzing Australian Cicadidae including the use of a few timbal characters.
The purpose of this paper is a new synthesis of hypotheses about relationships between the species of the Gothograptus lineage, in light of new observations and the new insights derived from the cladistic
studies of Bates et al.
As a result of Yeates's cladistic
study, Heterostylum was transferred to the Bombyliini.
The prevailing importance of genitalia not just in alpha taxonomy, but as reliable phylogenetic tracers against external morphological characters underlies a great amount of papers throughout at least fifty years; it was explicitly stressed by Zunino (1983, 1987), Zunino & Palestrini (1988), and was formally demonstrated by Tarasov & Solodovnikov (2011) by means of a cladistic
analysis of a large sample of Onthophagini.
Most of them propose (tacitly or explicitly) some assumptions about the potential systematic value of characters taken from hands and feet in anuran amphibians, without reaching cladistic
Pretarsal structure in the Miridae (Hemiptera) with a cladistic
analysis of relationships within the family.