For example, the geological hypothesis for the break-up of Gondwana has Australia and New Zealand separating well before Australia and South America, so that Australian and South American clades should be sister groups and together should be sister to New Zealand clades, if Gondwana vicariance was responsible for the cladogenesis
(Cook and Crisp 2005).
In addition, fossil record (Topachevskii, 1976), chromosomal variation (Lyapunova et al., 1974) and mitochondrial sequences (Hadid et al., 2012) have suggested a major cladogenesis
of the subfamily Spalacinae into two genera Spalax and Nannospalax.
and phylogeography of the Lizard phrynocephalus vlangalii (Agamidae) on the Tibetan plateau.
One has upward evolution (anagenesis, coined by Alpheus Hyatt, 1838-1902, in 1889), as the progressive evolution of the species into another , and a branching evolution (cladogenesis
, coined in 1953 by Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, 1887-1975), when the population diverges and new species evolve .
Ademas, este autor reconoce una correlacion entre cladogenesis
y la apertura del Atlantico/clausura del Mar de Tetis; sin embargo, la dispersion desde el Indo-Pacifico occidental seria una alternativa a tal escenario para explicar el origen y presencia de los ciados "americanos".
Juliformian millipedes from the Lower Devonian of Euramerica: implications for the timing of millipede cladogenesis
in the Paleozoic.
Moreover, fragmented landscapes that nurture insulation were relatively common, increasing the effect of diversification and cladogenesis
within Furnariidae (Claramunt, et al., 2011).
Maximum likelihood inference of geographic range evolution by dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis
. Systematic Biology 57: 4-14.
Chromosomal rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, can cause cladogenesis
events in populations of highly polymorphic killifish.