The radiographs of the upper limbs displayed the following features: curving of the humerus bones bilaterally, underdeveloped styloid process of the ulna bilaterally, postaxial polydactyly and clinodactyly
bilaterally, hyperplastic capitate of the left wrist, undeveloped metacarpal for the extra digit in the left hand, and hypoplastic hamate of the right wrist.
Abnormalities found exclusive to experimental groups are as follows: Craniostenosis, short snout, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, palpabral coloboma, kyphosis, lordosis, spina bifida, prognathia, scoliosis, limb malrotation and deformation, clinodactyly
, ectrodactyly, apodia, ankylodactyly, fused digits, flexed paw and hooked tail, at 44g/g B.
These included, in decreasing order of frequency, club feet, polydactyly, scoliosis, sacral agenesis, hemivertebrae, myelomeningocoele, spina bifida, clinodactyly
, syndactyly and absent clavicle.
The limb abnormalities after VPA exposure may include pre- and postaxial polydactyly, overlapping digits, talipes (clubfoot), clinodactyly
, arachnodactyly, hip dislocation, limb deficiencies, preaxial and postaxial polydactyly, reduction malformations of the arms and hands and radial ray defects19,20 .
was found in the fifth finger in both hands, large thumbs and introverted appearance of the second and third toes were found in both feet, joint laxity was found in the upper and lower extremities and narrow nail folds were found.
Proband S had broad, short fingers with bilateral fifth-finger clinodactyly
Failure of differentiation: Part II (arthrogryposis, camptodactyly, clinodactyly
, madelung deformity, trigger finger, and trigger thumb).
MDL usually presents at birth and may be associated with anomalies like syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly, or clinodactyly
A young patient was diagnosed with hemifacial microsomia due to its clinical presentation: facial asymmetry, right hemifacial microsomia, right microtia, right external auditory canal atresia, lumbar scoliosis, bilateral clinodactyly
, and a pansystolic murmur (34).
There was evidence of clinodactyly
in the left hand.
The morphological USG allows identifying the fetus phenotypic alterations already described previously, such as: bone changes in hands and fingers (short and broad hands, clinodactyly
, hypoplasia or absence of the middle phalanx), short femur and humerus, increase in the interocular distance, low-set ears, brachycephaly, macroglossia with mouth ajar.
protruding tongue, small low set ears, upward slanted eyes with epicanthic fold, short neck, short and broad hands, transverse single palmar crease, clinodactyly
, a large space between toes (sandal gap), hypotonia and delayed milestones.