incorporation and abstract semantic objects in idiomatic constructions.
Milicevic, Maja (2009) On the status of clitic
reflexives and reciprocals in Italian and Serbian.
This project is about a morphological process called "leismo," that consists of a shift from the Spanish accusative clitic
(lo, la, los, las) to the Spanish dative clitic
First, in contrast to the first question type, these questions make use of a resumptive clitic
pronoun that we find in the base position where the wh-phrase may be said to have originated inside the clause.
Not all studies in the literature, however, have found advantages of PI compared to other instructional types; this is the case for Spanish direct object pronouns and the conditional (DeKeyser & Sokalski, 1996), Spanish direct object pronouns (Keating & Farley, 2008; Morgan-Short & Bowden, 2006; Salaberry, 1997), Japanese honorifics (Nagata, 1998), French causative instruction (Allen, 2000), French direct object pronouns (Erlam, 2003), Spanish anticausative clitic
se (Toth, 2006), and English present subjunctive (Farley & Aslan, 2012).
In (18) and (19) I give an example of this using the minimal pair /haw/ 'go' and /?aw[??]/ 'say' set in the basic affirmative verb clause, which begins with the affirmative particle /ha[??]/ plus a subject clitic
followed by the verb root and a verbal clitic
An example of the former is the italicized phrase in "Make SWEET some vial, treasure thou some place," and of the latter the italicized phrase in "Within thine OWN bud buriest thy content." Rates of use of these clitic
microphrases are especially apt to discriminate between authors.
However, then in the future tense we adjoin14 a modal clitic
ba to the P, resulting in an extended P.
All children underwent further testing on a test of morphosyntactic abilities (Clitic
4, 862-866; ALBERT BICKFORD, "Spanish clitic
doubling and levels of gramatical relations", Lingua, 65 (1985), 189-211; OSVALDO JAEGGLI, "Three issues in the theory of clitics
: Case, doubled NPs and extraction", en Syntax and semantics 19: The syntax of pronominal clitics
The form with stress on the final clitic
pronoun (b) is the original Ligurian form and identified by speakers as archaic or 'genuine.' In fact, many speakers report that young people no longer use the latter prosody with imperatives when speaking dialect, supporting Grassi's (1993) assertion that innovations in the dialect (a) are more readily embraced by young people.
However, Demonte (1995) proposed that Spanish dative constructions with dative clitic
doubling are equivalent to English DOCs.