One (case 10) was in a lagger falcon (Falco jugger) and the second (case 11) was a Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) with secondary cloacitis
. In case 10, the etiology was a spinal injury, whereas in case 11, the underlying cause was prolonged egg incubation.
However multiple species have been shown to be capable of jumping across vertebrate host classes: C serpentis has been found in cattle (11); Cryptosporidium meleagridis, first described in turkeys, is a human pathogen (12); Cparvum has been identified in ray-finned fish (13,14); and an unnamed Cryptosporidium genotype first identified in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) has been reported in association with cloacitis
and cystitis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).
The secondary cloacitis
was managed with systemic antibiotics and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, in addition to the use of a topical medication.
A 42-year-old African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) weighing 358 g and of unknown gender was presented to the Division of Zoo Animals and Exotic Pets of the University of Zurich with a 2-year history of a nonhealing skin wound involving the cloaca, cloacitis, and recurrent cloacal impaction.
(2) The stones may result from prior egg binding, infectious cloacitis, or neurologic abnormalities of the cloaca.
Based on the history provided by the owner and physical examination results, the cloacitis was suspected as the nidus for the automutilation but not the underlying cause of the cloacolith.