The need to reconcile the idea of the clockwork universe while leaving God with room to act led him to believe that some divine purposes can be known and that science was the right way to achieve that knowledge.
The clockwork universe assumption, popular from the seventeenth century until the twentieth, was driven by an understanding of the world that was developed during the Enlightenment: that the universe has gears and dicks forward in a very deterministic and linear way.
So, while physics was rapidly moving away from simplistic ideas of causal determinism and a clockwork universe, the most intellectually powerful communities of social scientists--those with great sway over both public policy and popular perceptions of how societies work--were moving in the opposite direction by becoming increasingly wedded to a mechanistic view of social behaviour.
Of greatest concern to Einstein, and to many yet today, is the quantum insistence that the future is not precisely determined by the past, as it allegedly was in the clockwork universe quantified by Newton.
In Sokol's analysis Shakespeare writes with in, and with full working knowledge of, the same hydraulically driven clockwork universe that gives rise to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Cornelis Drebbel's artificial egg hatcheries, and Thomas Harriot's 'computations of potential population growth over time' (p.
In fact, something like quantum indeterminacy may be just the device for a God to tweak the outcome of cosmic evolution without crass intervention; something not possible in a Newtonian clockwork universe.