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to shut; bring to an end: It’s time to close the meeting.
Not to be confused with:
clothes – wearing apparel; garments: Choose the proper clothes for the occasion.
Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree Copyright © 2007, 2013 by Mary Embree


adj. clos·er, clos·est
1. Being near in space or time. See Usage Note at redundancy.
2. Being near in relationship: close relatives.
3. Bound by mutual interests, loyalties, or affections; intimate: close friends.
4. Having little or no space between elements or parts; tight and compact: a close weave.
5. Being near the surface; short: a close haircut.
6. Being on the brink of: close to tears.
7. Decided by a narrow margin; almost even: a close election.
8. Faithful to the original: a close copy.
9. Very attentive; rigorous; thorough: a close reading; close supervision.
10. Shut; closed.
11. Shut in; enclosed.
12. Confining or narrow; crowded: close quarters.
13. Fitting tightly: close garments.
14. Warm and humid or stuffy: close weather; a close room.
15. Confined to specific persons or groups: a close secret.
16. Strictly confined or guarded: kept under close custody.
17. Secretive; reticent: was close about her personal life.
18. Giving or spending with reluctance; stingy: He is known to be close with his money.
19. Not easily acquired; scarce: Money was close.
20. Linguistics Pronounced with the tongue near the palate, as the ee in meet. Used of vowels.
21. Marked by more rather than less punctuation, especially commas.
v. (klōz) closed, clos·ing, clos·es
1. To move (a door, for example) so that an opening or passage is covered or obstructed; shut.
2. To bar access to: closed the road for repairs.
3. To fill or stop up: closed the cracks with plaster.
4. To stop the operations of permanently or temporarily: closed down the factory.
5. To make unavailable for use: closed the area to development; closed the database to further changes.
6. To bring to an end; terminate: close a letter; close a bank account.
7. To bring together all the elements or parts of: Management closed ranks and ostracized the troublemaker.
8. To join or unite; bring into contact: close a circuit.
9. To draw or bind together the edges of: close a wound.
10. Sports To modify (one's stance), as in baseball or golf, by turning the body so that the forward shoulder and foot are closer to the intended point of impact with the ball.
11. To complete the final details or negotiations on: close a deal.
12. Archaic To enclose on all sides.
1. To become shut: The door closed quietly.
2. To come to an end; finish: The book closes on a hopeful note.
3. To reach an agreement; come to terms: We close on the house next week.
4. To cease operation: The shop closes at six.
5. To be priced or listed at a specified amount when trading ends: Stocks closed higher on Monday.
a. To engage at close quarters: closed with the enemy.
b. To draw near: The orbiter closed with the space station in preparation for docking.
7. To come together: My arms closed around the little child.
8. Baseball To finish a game by protecting a lead. Used of relief pitchers.
n. (klōz)
1. The act of closing.
2. A conclusion; a finish: The meeting came to a close.
3. Music The concluding part of a phrase or theme; a cadence.
4. (klōs) An enclosed place, especially land surrounding or beside a cathedral or other building.
5. (klōs) Chiefly British A narrow way or alley.
6. Archaic A fight at close quarters.
adv. (klōs) closer, closest
In a close position or manner; closely: stayed close together.
Phrasal Verbs:
close in
1. To seem to be gathering in on all sides: The problems closed in.
2. To advance on a target so as to block escape: The police closed in on the sniper.
3. To surround so as to make unusable: The airport was closed in by fog.
close out
1. To dispose of (a line of merchandise) at reduced prices.
2. To terminate, as by selling: close out a business.
close the book on
To make a final effort regarding (something); bring to a conclusion: closed the book on her career with a fine performance.
close to home/the bone
So as to affect one's feelings or interests: Her comment hit close to home.
close to the wind Nautical
At a close angle into the direction from which the wind is blowing: sailing close to the wind.

[Middle English clos, closed, from Old French, from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere, to close. V., from Middle English closen, from Old French clore, clos-, from Latin claudere.]

clos′a·ble, close′a·ble (klō′zə-bəl) adj.
close′ly adv.
close′ness n.
clos′ing (klō′zĭng) n.
Synonyms: close, immediate, near, proximate
These adjectives mean not far from another in space, time, or relationship: an airport close to town; her immediate family; his nearest relative; the proximate neighborhood. See Also Synonyms at complete.
Antonym: far
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


1. near in space or time; in proximity
2. having the parts near together; dense: a close formation.
3. down or near to the surface; short: a close haircut.
4. near in relationship: a close relative.
5. intimate or confidential: a close friend.
6. almost equal or even: a close contest.
7. not deviating or varying greatly from a model or standard: a close resemblance; a close translation.
8. careful, strict, or searching: a close study.
9. (General Sporting Terms) (of a style of play in football, hockey, etc) characterized by short passes
10. confined or enclosed
11. shut or shut tight
12. oppressive, heavy, or airless: a close atmosphere.
13. strictly guarded: a close prisoner.
14. neat or tight in fit: a close cap.
15. secretive or reticent
16. miserly; not generous, esp with money
17. (of money or credit) hard to obtain; scarce
18. restricted as to public admission or membership
19. hidden or secluded
20. (Hunting) Also: closed restricted or prohibited as to the type of game or fish able to be taken
21. (Phonetics & Phonology) phonetics Also: closed or narrow denoting a vowel pronounced with the lips relatively close together
22. closely; tightly
23. near or in proximity
24. (Nautical Terms) close to the wind nautical sailing as nearly as possible towards the direction from which the wind is blowing. See also wind126
[C13: from Old French clos close, enclosed, from Latin clausus shut up, from claudere to close]
ˈclosely adv
ˈcloseness n


1. to put or be put in such a position as to cover an opening; shut: the door closed behind him.
2. (tr) to bar, obstruct, or fill up (an entrance, a hole, etc): to close a road.
3. (Medicine) to bring the parts or edges of (a wound, etc) together or (of the edges of a wound, etc) to be brought together
4. (intr; foll by on, over, etc) to take hold: his hand closed over the money.
5. to bring or be brought to an end; terminate
6. to complete (an agreement, a deal, etc) successfully or (of an agreement, deal, etc) to be completed successfully
7. to cease or cause to cease to render service: the shop closed at six.
8. (Stock Exchange) (intr) stock exchange to have a value at the end of a day's trading, as specified: steels closed two points down.
9. (Electronics) to complete an electrical circuit
10. (Nautical Terms) (tr) nautical to pass near
11. (tr) archaic to enclose or shut in
12. close one's eyes
a. euphemistic to die
b. (often foll by to) to ignore
13. the act of closing
14. the end or conclusion: the close of the day.
15. a place of joining or meeting
16. (Law) law private property, usually enclosed by a fence, hedge, or wall
17. (Architecture) Brit a courtyard or quadrangle enclosed by buildings or an entry leading to such a courtyard
18. (Human Geography) (capital when part of a street name) Brit a small quiet residential road: Hillside Close.
19. (Agriculture) Brit a field
20. (Ecclesiastical Terms) the precincts of a cathedral or similar building
21. (Architecture) Scot the entry from the street to a tenement building
22. (Classical Music) music another word for cadence
23. archaic or rare an encounter in battle; grapple
ˈcloser n
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(v. kloʊz; adj., adv. kloʊs; n. kloʊz for 66, 67, 70–72, 74, 75, kloʊs for 68, 69, 73 )

v. closed, clos•ing, v.t.
1. to put (something) in a position to obstruct an entrance or opening; shut.
2. to stop or obstruct (a gap, entrance, aperture, etc.): to close a hole in the wall.
3. to block or hinder passage across or access to: to close a border to tourists.
4. to stop or obstruct the entrances, apertures, or gaps in: to close a box.
5. to make imperceptive or inaccessible: to close one's mind to criticisms.
6. to bring together the parts of; join (often fol. by up): Close up ranks!
7. to bring to an end: to close a debate.
8. to conclude successfully; consummate: to close a deal.
9. to stop rendering the customary services of: to close a store for the night.
10. to terminate or suspend the operation of: The police closed the bar for selling liquor to minors.
11. Naut. to come close to.
12. Archaic. to enclose; cover in.
13. to become closed; shut: The door closed with a bang.
14. to come together; unite: Her lips closed firmly.
15. to come close: His pursuers closed rapidly.
16. to grapple; engage in close encounter (often fol. by with): to close with enemy troops.
17. to come to an end; terminate.
18. to cease to offer the customary activities or services: The school closed for the summer.
19. to cease to be performed: The play closed yesterday.
20. to enter into or reach an agreement, usu. as a contract.
21. (of a stock or stocks) to be priced or show a change in price as specified at the end of a trading period.
22. close down, to terminate the operation of; discontinue.
23. close in on or upon,
a. to approach stealthily, as to capture.
b. to envelop or seem to envelop, as if to suffocate.
24. close out,
a. to reduce the price of (merchandise) for quick sale.
b. to dispose of completely; liquidate: to close out a bank account.
25. having the parts or elements near to one another: a close design.
26. compact; dense: a close weave.
27. being in or having proximity in space or time.
28. marked by similarity in degree, action, feeling, etc.: Dark pink is close to red.
29. near, or near together, in kind or relationship: a close relative.
30. intimate or confidential; dear.
31. based on a strong uniting feeling of respect, honor, or love: a close friend.
32. fitting tightly: a close sweater.
33. cut flush with the surface or very short: a close haircut.
34. not deviating from the subject under consideration.
35. strict; searching; minute: close investigation.
36. not deviating from a model or original: a close translation.
37. nearly even or equal: a close contest.
38. strictly logical: close reasoning.
39. shut; shut tight; not open: a close hatch.
40. shut in; enclosed.
41. completely surrounding: a close siege.
42. without opening; with all openings closed.
43. confined; narrow; stuffy: close rooms.
44. heavy; oppressive: close, sultry weather.
45. narrowly confined, as a prisoner.
46. practicing or keeping secrecy; secretive; reticent.
47. parsimonious; stingy.
48. scarce, as money.
49. not open to public or general admission, competition, etc.
50. (of a vowel) articulated with a small opening between the tongue and the roof of the mouth, as the vowel sound of meet; high. Compare open (def. 25a).
51. in a close manner; closely.
52. near; close by.
53. the act of closing.
54. the end or conclusion.
55. an enclosed place or enclosure, esp. one beside a cathedral.
56. any piece of land held as private property.
a. the closing price on a stock.
b. the closing prices on an exchange market.
58. Brit.
a. a narrow alley terminating in a dead end.
b. a courtyard with one entrance.
close ranks, to unite forces in a show of loyalty, esp. to deal with challenge or adversity.
[1200–50; (n., adj.) Middle English clos < Anglo-French, Old French < Latin clausus, past participle of claudere to close (compare clause); (v.) Middle English, derivative of the adj.]
clos•a•ble, close•a•ble (ˈkloʊ zə bəl) adj.
close•ly (ˈkloʊs li) adv.
close•ness (ˈkloʊs nɪs) n.
clos•er (ˈkloʊ zər) n.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. 'close' or 'shut'

If you close /kləʊz/ something such as a door, you move it so that it covers or fills a hole or gap.

He opened the door and closed it behind him.

You can also say that you shut something such as a door. There is no difference in meaning. The past tense and -ed participle of shut is shut.

I shut the door quietly.

Both closed and shut can be adjectives used after a linking verb.

All the other downstairs rooms are dark and the shutters are closed.
The windows were all shut.

You can use either close or shut to say that work or business stops for a short time in a shop or public building.

Many libraries close on Saturdays at 1 p.m.
What time do the shops shut?
2. 'close' or 'closed' only

Only closed can be used in front of a noun. You can talk about a closed window, but not a 'shut' window.

He listened to her voice coming faintly through the closed door.

You can say that a road, border, or airport is closed.

The border was closed without notice around midnight.

Don't say that a road, border, or airport 'is shut'.

Be Careful!
Don't confuse the verb close with the adjective close /kləʊs/. If something is close to something else, it is near to it.


1. talking about short distances

If something is near, near to, or close to a place or thing, it is a short distance from it. When close has this meaning, it is pronounced /kləʊs/.

I live in Reinfeld, which is near Lübeck.
I stood very near to them.
They owned a cottage close to the sea.

When near and close have this meaning, don't use them immediately in front of a noun. Instead use nearby.

He was taken to a nearby hospital.
He threw the bag into some nearby bushes.

However, the superlative form nearest can be used immediately in front of a noun.

They hurried to the nearest exit.
2. meaning 'almost'

You can use near immediately in front of a noun to say that something is almost a particular thing.

The country is in a state of near chaos.
We drove to the station in near silence.

You can also use near immediately in front of an adjective and a noun to say that something almost has a particular quality.

It was a near fatal accident.
The Government faces a near impossible dilemma.

You can use near, near to, or close to immediately in front of a noun to say that someone or something is almost in a particular state.

Her father was angry, her mother near tears.
When she saw him again, he was near to death.
She was close to tears.
3. talking about friends and relatives

You can refer to someone you know well as a 'close friend'.

His father was a close friend of Peter Thorneycroft.

Don't refer to someone as a 'near friend'.

You can refer to someone who is directly related to you as a 'close relative'.

She had no very close relatives.

You can also refer to someone as a 'near relative', but this is less common.

Be Careful!
Don't confuse the adjective 'close' with the verb close /kləʊz/. If you close something, you move it so that it fills a hole or gap.

See close - closed - shut
Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012


Past participle: closed
Gerund: closing

I close
you close
he/she/it closes
we close
you close
they close
I closed
you closed
he/she/it closed
we closed
you closed
they closed
Present Continuous
I am closing
you are closing
he/she/it is closing
we are closing
you are closing
they are closing
Present Perfect
I have closed
you have closed
he/she/it has closed
we have closed
you have closed
they have closed
Past Continuous
I was closing
you were closing
he/she/it was closing
we were closing
you were closing
they were closing
Past Perfect
I had closed
you had closed
he/she/it had closed
we had closed
you had closed
they had closed
I will close
you will close
he/she/it will close
we will close
you will close
they will close
Future Perfect
I will have closed
you will have closed
he/she/it will have closed
we will have closed
you will have closed
they will have closed
Future Continuous
I will be closing
you will be closing
he/she/it will be closing
we will be closing
you will be closing
they will be closing
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been closing
you have been closing
he/she/it has been closing
we have been closing
you have been closing
they have been closing
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been closing
you will have been closing
he/she/it will have been closing
we will have been closing
you will have been closing
they will have been closing
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been closing
you had been closing
he/she/it had been closing
we had been closing
you had been closing
they had been closing
I would close
you would close
he/she/it would close
we would close
you would close
they would close
Past Conditional
I would have closed
you would have closed
he/she/it would have closed
we would have closed
you would have closed
they would have closed
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.close - the temporal endclose - the temporal end; the concluding time; "the stopping point of each round was signaled by a bell"; "the market was up at the finish"; "they were playing better at the close of the season"
end, ending - the point in time at which something ends; "the end of the year"; "the ending of warranty period"
2.close - the last section of a communication; "in conclusion I want to say..."
anticlimax, bathos - a change from a serious subject to a disappointing one
section, subdivision - a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical); "he always turns first to the business section"; "the history of this work is discussed in the next section"
epilog, epilogue - a short passage added at the end of a literary work; "the epilogue told what eventually happened to the main characters"
epilog, epilogue - a short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience by an actor at the end of a play
peroration - (rhetoric) the concluding section of an oration; "he summarized his main points in his peroration"
coda, finale - the closing section of a musical composition
recital, yarn, narration - the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events; "his narration was hesitant"
speech, address - the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience; "he listened to an address on minor Roman poets"
3.close - the concluding part of any performance
finishing, finish - the act of finishing; "his best finish in a major tournament was third"; "the speaker's finishing was greeted with applause"
Verb1.close - move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut; "Close the door"; "shut the window"
snap - close with a snapping motion; "The lock snapped shut"
slat - close the slats of (windows)
slam, bang - close violently; "He slammed the door shut"
shutter - close with shutters; "We shuttered the window to keep the house cool"
draw - move or pull so as to cover or uncover something; "draw the shades"; "draw the curtains"
roll up - close (a car window) by causing it to move up, as with a handle; "she rolled up the window when it started to rain"
bung - close with a cork or stopper
close, shut - become closed; "The windows closed with a loud bang"
seal, seal off - make tight; secure against leakage; "seal the windows"
open, open up - cause to open or to become open; "Mary opened the car door"
2.close - become closed; "The windows closed with a loud bang"
change state, turn - undergo a transformation or a change of position or action; "We turned from Socialism to Capitalism"; "The people turned against the President when he stole the election"
close, shut - move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut; "Close the door"; "shut the window"
open, open up - become open; "The door opened"
3.close - cease to operate or cause to cease operating; "The owners decided to move and to close the factory"; "My business closes every night at 8 P.M."; "close up the shop"
adjourn, retire, withdraw - break from a meeting or gathering; "We adjourned for lunch"; "The men retired to the library"
open, open up - start to operate or function or cause to start operating or functioning; "open a business"
4.close - finish or terminate (meetings, speeches, etc.); "The meeting was closed with a charge by the chairman of the board"
terminate, end - bring to an end or halt; "She ended their friendship when she found out that he had once been convicted of a crime"; "The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I"
open - begin or set in action, of meetings, speeches, recitals, etc.; "He opened the meeting with a long speech"
5.close - come to a close; "The concert closed with a nocturne by Chopin"
end, cease, terminate, finish, stop - have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or metaphorical; "the bronchioles terminate in a capillary bed"; "Your rights stop where you infringe upon the rights of other"; "My property ends by the bushes"; "The symphony ends in a pianissimo"
6.close - complete a business deal, negotiation, or an agreement; "We closed on the house on Friday"; "They closed the deal on the building"
terminate, end - bring to an end or halt; "She ended their friendship when she found out that he had once been convicted of a crime"; "The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I"
7.close - be priced or listed when trading stops; "The stock market closed high this Friday"; "My new stocks closed at $59 last night"
trade - be traded at a certain price or under certain conditions; "The stock traded around $20 a share"
8.close - engage at close quarters; "close with the enemy"
engage, pursue, prosecute - carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in; "She pursued many activities"; "They engaged in a discussion"
9.close - cause a window or an application to disappear on a computer desktop
end, terminate - be the end of; be the last or concluding part of; "This sad scene ended the movie"
open - display the contents of a file or start an application as on a computer
10.close - change one's body stance so that the forward shoulder and foot are closer to the intended point of impact
ball game, ballgame - a field game played with a ball (especially baseball)
move - move so as to change position, perform a nontranslational motion; "He moved his hand slightly to the right"
11.close - come together, as if in an embrace; "Her arms closed around her long lost relative"
move - move so as to change position, perform a nontranslational motion; "He moved his hand slightly to the right"
12.close - draw near; "The probe closed with the space station"
approach, draw near, near, come near, come on, draw close, go up - move towards; "We were approaching our destination"; "They are drawing near"; "The enemy army came nearer and nearer"
13.close - bring together all the elements or parts of; "Management closed ranks"
bring together, join - cause to become joined or linked; "join these two parts so that they fit together"
14.close - bar access to; "Due to the accident, the road had to be closed for several hours"
barricade, block, block up, blockade, block off, bar, stop - render unsuitable for passage; "block the way"; "barricade the streets"; "stop the busy road"
15.close - fill or stop up; "Can you close the cracks with caulking?"
fill - plug with a substance; "fill a cavity"
seal - close with or as if with a seal; "She sealed the letter with hot wax"
plug, stop up, secure - fill or close tightly with or as if with a plug; "plug the hole"; "stop up the leak"
coapt, conglutinate - cause to adhere; "The wounds were coapted"
16.close - unite or bring into contact or bring together the edges of; "close the circuit"; "close a wound"; "close a book"; "close up an umbrella"
bring together, join - cause to become joined or linked; "join these two parts so that they fit together"
17.close - finish a game in baseball by protecting a lead; "The relief pitcher closed with two runs in the second inning"
complete, finish - come or bring to a finish or an end; "He finished the dishes"; "She completed the requirements for her Master's Degree"; "The fastest runner finished the race in just over 2 hours; others finished in over 4 hours"
Adj.1.close - at or within a short distance in space or time or having elements near each other; "close to noon"; "how close are we to town?"; "a close formation of ships"
distant - separated in space or coming from or going to a distance; "distant villages"; "the sound of distant traffic"; "a distant sound"; "a distant telephone call"
2.close - close in relevance or relationship; "a close family"; "we are close sympathy with..."; "close kin"; "a close resemblance"
distant, remote - far apart in relevance or relationship or kinship ; "a distant cousin"; "a remote relative"; "a distant likeness"; "considerations entirely removed (or remote) from politics"
3.close - not far distant in time or space or degree or circumstances; "near neighbors"; "in the near future"; "they are near equals"; "his nearest approach to success"; "a very near thing"; "a near hit by the bomb"; "she was near tears"; "she was close to tears"; "had a close call"
4.close - rigorously attentive; strict and thorough; "close supervision"; "paid close attention"; "a close study"; "kept a close watch on expenditures"
careful - exercising caution or showing care or attention; "they were careful when crossing the busy street"; "be careful to keep her shoes clean"; "did very careful research"; "careful art restorers"; "careful of the rights of others"; "careful about one's behavior"
5.close - marked by fidelity to an original; "a close translation"; "a faithful copy of the portrait"; "a faithful rendering of the observed facts"
accurate - conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy; "an accurate reproduction"; "the accounting was accurate"; "accurate measurements"; "an accurate scale"
6.close - (of a contest or contestants) evenly matched; "a close contest"; "a close election"; "a tight game"
equal - having the same quantity, value, or measure as another; "on equal terms"; "all men are equal before the law"
7.close - crowded; "close quarters"
confined - not free to move about
8.close - lacking fresh airclose - lacking fresh air; "a dusty airless attic"; "the dreadfully close atmosphere"; "hot and stuffy and the air was blue with smoke"
unventilated - not ventilated; "stuffy unventilated rooms"
9.close - of textiles; "a close weave"; "smooth percale with a very tight weave"
fine - of textures that are smooth to the touch or substances consisting of relatively small particles; "wood with a fine grain"; "fine powdery snow"; "fine rain"; "batiste is a cotton fabric with a fine weave"; "covered with a fine film of dust"
10.close - strictly confined or guarded; "kept under close custody"
restrained - under restraint
11.close - confined to specific persons; "a close secret"
private - confined to particular persons or groups or providing privacy; "a private place"; "private discussions"; "private lessons"; "a private club"; "a private secretary"; "private property"; "the former President is now a private citizen"; "public figures struggle to maintain a private life"
12.close - fitting closely but comfortably; "a close fit"
tight - closely constrained or constricted or constricting; "tight skirts"; "he hated tight starched collars"; "fingers closed in a tight fist"; "a tight feeling in his chest"
13.close - used of hair or haircuts; "a close military haircut"
short - (primarily spatial sense) having little length or lacking in length; "short skirts"; "short hair"; "the board was a foot short"; "a short toss"
14.close - giving or spending with reluctance; "our cheeseparing administration"; "very close (or near) with his money"; "a penny-pinching miserly old man"
stingy, ungenerous - unwilling to spend; "she practices economy without being stingy"; "an ungenerous response to the appeal for funds"
15.close - inclined to secrecy or reticence about divulging information; "although they knew her whereabouts her friends kept close about it"
incommunicative, uncommunicative - not inclined to talk or give information or express opinions
Adv.1.close - near in time or place or relationship; "as the wedding day drew near"; "stood near the door"; "don't shoot until they come near"; "getting near to the true explanation"; "her mother is always near"; "The end draws nigh"; "the bullet didn't come close"; "don't get too close to the fire"
2.close - in an attentive manner; "he remained close on his guard"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


1. shut, lock, push to, fasten, secure If you are cold, close the window.
shut open, widen
2. shut down, finish, cease, discontinue Many enterprises will be forced to close because of the recession.
3. wind up, finish, axe (informal), shut down, terminate, discontinue, mothball There are rumours of plans to close the local college.
4. block up, bar, seal, shut up The government has closed the border crossing.
block up open, clear
5. end, finish, complete, conclude, wind up, culminate, terminate He closed the meeting with his customary address.
end start, open, begin, initiate, commence
6. clinch, confirm, secure, conclude, seal, verify, sew up (informal), set the seal on He needs another $30,000 to close the deal.
7. come together, join, connect His fingers closed around her wrist.
come together part, separate, disconnect
1. end, ending, finish, conclusion, completion, finale, culmination, denouement His retirement brings to a close a glorious chapter in British football history.


1. near, neighbouring, nearby, handy, adjacent, adjoining, hard by, just round the corner, within striking distance (informal), cheek by jowl, proximate, within spitting distance (informal), within sniffing distance, a hop, skip and a jump away The plant is close to Sydney airport.
near far, future, remote, distant, far away, far off, outlying
3. noticeable, marked, strong, distinct, pronounced There is a close resemblance between them.
4. careful, detailed, searching, concentrated, keen, intense, minute, alert, intent, thorough, rigorous, attentive, painstaking, assiduous His recent actions have been the subject of close scrutiny.
5. even, level, neck and neck, fifty-fifty (informal), evenly matched, equally balanced It is still a close contest between the two leading parties.
6. imminent, near, approaching, impending, at hand, upcoming, nigh, just round the corner A White House official said an agreement is close.
imminent far, future, remote, distant, far away, far off
7. stifling, confined, oppressive, stale, suffocating, stuffy, humid, sweltering, airless, muggy, unventilated, fuggy, frowsty, heavy, thick They sat in that hot, close room for two hours.
stifling fresh, refreshing, spacious, airy, roomy
8. accurate, strict, exact, precise, faithful, literal, conscientious The poem is a close translation from the original Latin.
9. secretive, private, reticent, taciturn, uncommunicative, unforthcoming The Colonel was very close about certain episodes in his past.
10. mean, stingy, parsimonious, illiberal, miserly, niggardly, ungenerous, penurious, tight-fisted, mingy (Brit. informal), tight as a duck's arse (taboo slang) She is very close with money.
mean liberal, generous, lavish, charitable, extravagant, magnanimous, unstinting
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002


1. Not far from another in space, time, or relation:
2. Very closely associated:
Informal: thick.
Slang: tight.
Idiom: hand in glove with.
3. Having all parts near to each other:
4. Nearly equivalent or even:
5. Not deviating from correctness, accuracy, or completeness:
6. Affording little room for movement:
7. Oppressive due to a lack of fresh air:
1. To move (a door, for example) in order to cover an opening:
2. To plug up something, as a hole, space, or container:
3. To bring or come to a natural or proper end:
4. To come together:
phrasal verb
close in
To surround and advance upon:
phrasal verb
close off
To set apart from a group:
phrasal verb
close out
To get rid of completely by selling, especially in quantity or at a discount:
3. An area partially or entirely enclosed by walls or buildings:
To a point near in time, space, or relation:
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
بأِحْكامببَخيل، وَضيعبِجَانِبخانِق، بِدون هَواء نَقيدَقيق
blízkýzavřítblízkodokonale padnoucí oděvdůkladný
dulur, leyndardómsfullurenda, ljúkaítarlegur, nákvæmurjafn; tvísÿnnlok
zapretiblizučisto blizunatančenpozoren
yakınyakındayanındaağzı sıkıanlaşmaya varmak


1 [kləʊs]
A. ADV (closer (compar) (closest (superl))) → cerca
the shops are very closelas tiendas están muy cerca
the hotel is close to the stationel hotel está cerca de la estación
she was close to tearsestaba a punto de llorar
according to sources close to the policesegún fuentes allegadas a la policía
close bymuy cerca
come closeracércate más
to come close toacercarse a
we came very close to losing the matchestuvimos a punto de perder el partido, faltó poco para que perdiéramos el partido
that comes close to an insulteso es casi un insulto
the runners finished very closelos corredores llegaron casi al mismo tiempo
to fit closeajustarse al cuerpo
to follow close behindseguir muy de cerca
to hold sb closeabrazar fuertemente a algn
to keep close to the wallir arrimado a la pared
he must be close on 50debe andar cerca de los 50
it's close on six o'clockson casi las seis
stay close to meno te alejes or separes de mí
close togetherjuntos, cerca uno del otro
to look at sth close upmirar algo de cerca
1. (= near) [place] → cercano, próximo; [contact] → directo; [connection] → estrecho, íntimo
close combatlucha f cuerpo a cuerpo
at close quartersde cerca
to come a close second to sb/sthdisputarle la primera posición a algn/algo
he was the closest thing to a real worker among usentre nosotros él tenía más visos de ser un obrero auténtico, de nosotros él era el que tenía más visos de ser un obrero
it was a close shavese salvaron por un pelo or de milagro
2. (= intimate) [relative] → cercano; [friend] → íntimo
we have only invited close relationssólo hemos invitado a parientes cercanos
she's a close friend of minees una amiga íntima mía
I'm very close to my sisterestoy muy unida a mi hermana
they're very close (to each other)están muy unidos
a close circle of friendsun estrecho círculo de amigos
3. (= almost equal) [result, election, fight] → muy reñido; [scores] → casi iguales
it was a very close contestfue una competición muy reñida
to bear a close resemblance totener mucho parecido con
4. (= exact, detailed) [examination, study] → detallado; [investigation, questioning] → minucioso; [surveillance, control] → estricto; [translation] → fiel, exacto
to pay close attention to sb/sthprestar mucha atención a algn/algo
to keep a close watch on sbmantener a algn bajo estricta vigilancia
5. (= not spread out) [handwriting, print] → compacto; [texture, weave] → compacto, tupido; [formation] → cerrado
6. (= stuffy) [atmosphere, room] → sofocante, cargado; [weather] → pesado, bochornoso
it's close this afternoonhace bochorno esta tarde
7. (= secretive) → reservado; (= mean) → tacaño
8. (Ling) [vowel] → cerrado
C. Nrecinto m
D. CPD close company N (Brit) (Fin) → sociedad f exclusiva, compañía f propietaria
close corporation N (US) = close company close season N (Hunting, Fishing) → veda f (Ftbl) → temporada f de descanso (de la liga de fútbol)


2 [kləʊz]
A. N (= end) → final m, conclusión f
at the closeal final
at the close of daya la caída de la tarde
at the close of the yearal final del año
to bring sth to a closeterminar algo, concluir algo
to draw to a closetocar a su fin, estar terminando
1. (= shut) [shop] → cerrar; [door, window] → cerrarse
the doors close automaticallylas puertas se cierran automáticamente
the shops close at five thirtylas tiendas cierran a las cinco y media
this window does not close properlyesta ventana no cierra bien
his eyes closedse le cerraron los ojos
2. (= end) → terminar, terminarse, concluir (Fin) shares closed at 120pal cierre las acciones estaban a 120 peniques
1. (= shut) → cerrar; [+ hole] → tapar
please close the doorcierra la puerta, por favor
"road closed"cerrado el paso
to close one's eyescerrar los ojos
to close one's eyes to sth (= ignore) → hacer la vista gorda a algo
to close the gap between two thingsllenar el hueco entre dos cosas
close your mouth when you're eating!¡no abras la boca comiendo!
to close rankscerrar filas
2. (= end) [+ discussion, meeting] → cerrar, poner fin a; [+ ceremony] → clausurar, dar término a; [+ bank account] → liquidar; [+ account] (Comm) → saldar; [+ bargain, deal] → cerrar
close down
A. VI + ADV [business] (gen) → cerrarse definitivamente; (by order) → clausurarse (TV, Rad) → cerrar (la emisión)
B. VT + ADV (gen) → cerrar definitivamente; (by legal order) → clausurar
close in
A. VI + ADV [hunters] → acercarse rodeando, rodear; [night] → caer; [darkness, fog] → cerrarse
the days are closing inlos días son cada vez más cortos
night was closing incaía ya la noche
B. VT + ADV [+ area] → cercar, rodear
close in on VI + ADV + PREP to close in on sbrodear a algn, cercar a algn
close off VT + ADV [+ road] → cerrar al tráfico, cerrar al público; [+ supply] → cortar; [+ access] → bloquear
close on VI + PREP
1. (= get nearer to) → acercarse a
2. (US) = close in on
close out VT + ADV (US) (Fin) → liquidar
close round VI + PREP the crowd closed round himla multitud se agolpó en torno suyo
the clouds closed round the peaklas nubes envolvieron la cumbre
the waters closed round itlo envolvieron las aguas
close up
A. VI + ADV [flower] → cerrarse del todo; [people in queue] → arrimarse; [ranks] → apretarse; [wound] → cicatrizarse
close up, pleasearrímense, por favor
B. VT + ADV [+ building] → cerrar (del todo); [+ pipe, opening] → tapar, obstruir; [+ wound] → cerrar
close with VI + PREP (= begin to fight) → enzarzarse con
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


(= near) → près, proche
The shops are very close → Les magasins sont tout près.
close to prep (= near) → près de, proche de
The youth hostel is close to the station → L'auberge de jeunesse est près de la gare.
She was close to tears
BUT Elle était au bord des larmes.
at close quarters [observe, watch] → de près
[friend, relation] → proche; [tie, relationship] → proche
We're just inviting close relations → Nous n'invitons que les parents proches.
She's a close friend of mine → C'est une amie proche.
to be close to sb (emotionally)être proche de qn
I'm very close to my sister → Je suis très proche de ma sœur.
[contest] → serré(e)
It's going to be very close → Ça va être très serré.
to be too close to call → être très serré(e)
[writing, texture] → serré(e)
to keep a close watch on sb/sth, to keep a close eye on sb/sth → surveiller qn/qch de près
[examination] → attentif/ive, minutieux/euse
[weather] → lourd(e)
It's close this afternoon → Il fait lourd cet après-midi.
(= stuffy) [room] → mal aéré(e)
it was a close shave, it was a close thing, it was a close call → il s'en est fallu de peu
to have a close shave (fig)l'échapper belle
advprès, à proximité
come closer → rapproche-toi
close by, close at hand (= nearby) → à côté
close behind advde près
close up, close to (from a short distance away)de près
They always look smaller close to → Ils ont toujours l'air plus petits de près.
close to, close on > (British) (= nearly) → presque
[ˈkləʊz] vb
(= shut) [+ door, window] → fermer
Please close the door → Fermez la porte, s'il vous plaît.
[+ bargain, deal] → conclure
[+ conversation] → mettre un terme à
[shop, office] → fermer
What time does the pool close? → La piscine ferme à quelle heure?
The shops close at 5.30 → Les magasins ferment à cinq heures et demie.
(= shut) [door] → se fermer (= shut again after opening) → se refermer
(= end) → se terminer
(= end) [century, match, period] → fin f
to bring sth to a close → mettre fin à qch
[day] → tombée f
[business] → clôture f
close down
vt sep [+ business, shop] → fermer (définitivement)
vi [business, shop] → fermer (définitivement)
close in
[ˌkləʊzˈɪn] vi
(= get closer) [hunters, pursuers] → se rapprocher
to close in on sb/sth → cerner qn/qch
[night] → tomber; [fog] → descendre
the days are closing in → les jours raccourcissent
close off
vt sep [+ area, road] → fermerclose-cropped [ˌkləʊsˈkrɒpt] adj [hair] → ras(e), coupé(e) ras
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


adjgeizig, knauserig (inf)
adjfein gemasert
close-harmony singers
plVokalgruppe f (die im Barbershop-Stil singt)
close-harmony singing
adj comp <closer-knit> communityeng or fest zusammengewachsen


adj comp <closer-run> racemit knappem Ausgang; it was a close thinges war eine knappe Sache
close season
(Ftbl) → Saisonpause f
(Hunt, Fishing) → Schonzeit f
adj comp <closer-set> eyeseng zusammenstehend; printeng
adjglatt rasiert


adj (+er)
(= near)nahe (→ to +gen), → in der Nähe (→ to +gen, → von); is Glasgow close to Edinburgh?liegt Glasgow in der Nähe von Edinburgh?; the buildings which are close to the stationdie Gebäude in der Nähe des Bahnhofs or in Bahnhofsnähe; in close proximityin unmittelbarer Nähe (→ to +gen); in such close proximity (to one another)so dicht zusammen; you’re very close (in guessing etc) → du bist dicht dran; close combatNahkampf m; at close quartersaus unmittelbarer Nähe; he chose the closest cakeer nahm den Kuchen, der am nächsten lag; we use this pub because it’s close/the closestwir gehen in dieses Lokal, weil es in der Nähe/am nächsten ist
(in time) → nahe (bevorstehend); nobody realized how close a nuclear war wases war niemandem klar, wie nahe ein Atomkrieg bevorstand
(fig) friend, co-operation, connection etceng; relativenahe; resemblancegroß, stark; they were very close (to each other)sie waren or standen sich or einander (geh)sehr nahe
(= not spread out) handwriting, printeng; ranksdicht, geschlossen; (fig) argumentlückenlos, stichhaltig; reasoning, gamegeschlossen
(= exact, painstaking) examination, studyeingehend, genau; translationoriginalgetreu; watchstreng, scharf; now pay close attention to mejetzt hör mir gut zu; you have to pay very close attention to the traffic signsdu musst genau auf die Verkehrszeichen achten; to keep a close lookout for somebody/somethingscharf nach jdm/etw Ausschau halten
(= stuffy)schwül; (indoors) → stickig
(= almost equal) fight, resultknapp; a close(-fought) matchein (ganz) knappes Spiel; a close finishein Kopf-an-Kopf-Rennen nt; a close electionein Kopf-an-Kopf-Rennen nt, → eine Wahl mit knappem Ausgang; it was a close thing or calldas war knapp!; the vote/election was too close to callder Ausgang der Abstimmung/Wahl war völlig offen
close onnahezu; close on sixty/midnightan die sechzig/kurz vor Mitternacht
adv (+er)nahe; (spatially also) → dicht; close byin der Nähe; close by usin unserer Nähe; stay close to mebleib dicht bei mir; close to the water/groundnahe or dicht am Wasser/Boden; close to or by the bridgenahe (bei) der Brücke; he followed close behind meer ging dicht hinter mir; don’t stand too close to the firestell dich nicht zu nahe or dicht ans Feuer; to be close to tearsden Tränen nahe sein; close togetherdicht or nahe zusammen; my exams were so close togethermeine Prüfungen lagen so kurz hintereinander; the closer the exams came the more nervous he gotje näher die Prüfung rückte, desto nervöser wurde er; that brought the two brothers closer togetherdas brachte die beiden Brüder einander näher; please stand closer togetherbitte rücken Sie näher or dichter zusammen; this pattern comes close/closest to the sort of thing we wanteddieses Muster kommt dem, was wir uns vorgestellt haben, nahe/am nächsten; what does it look like (from) close up?wie sieht es von Nahem aus?; if you get too close up …wenn du zu nahe herangehst …
n (in street names) → Hof m; (of cathedral etc)Domhof m; (Scot: = outside passage) → offener Hausflur


(= shut)schließen; eyes, door, shop, window, curtains alsozumachen; (permanently) business, shop etcschließen; factorystilllegen; (= block) opening etcverschließen; roadsperren; “closed”„geschlossen“; sorry, we’re closedtut uns leid, wir haben geschlossen or zu; don’t close your mind to new ideasdu solltest dich neuen Ideen nicht verschließen; to close one’s eyes/ears to somethingsich einer Sache gegenüber blind/taub stellen; to close ranks (Mil, fig) → die Reihen schließen; to close the gap between …die Diskrepanz zwischen … beseitigen; to close an application (Comput) → eine Anwendung beenden
(= bring to an end) church service, meetingschließen, beenden; affair, discussion alsoabschließen; bank account etcauflösen; saleabschließen; the matter is closedder Fall ist abgeschlossen
(Elec) circuitschließen
(= shut, come together)sich schließen; (door, window, box, lid, eyes, wound also)zugehen; (= can be shut)schließen, zugehen; (shop, factory)schließen, zumachen; (factory: permanently) → stillgelegt werden; his eyes closeddie Augen fielen ihm zu; (in death) → seine Augen schlossen sich
(= come to an end)schließen; (tourist season)aufhören, enden, zu Ende gehen; (Theat, play) → auslaufen
(= approach)sich nähern, näher kommen; (boxers etc)aufeinander losgehen; the battleship closed to within 100 metresdas Kriegsschiff kam bis auf 100 Meter heran
(Comm: = accept offer) → abschließen, zu einem Abschluss kommen
(St Ex) → schließen; the shares closed at £5die Aktien erreichten eine Schlussnotierung von £ 5
nEnde nt, → Schluss m; to come to a closeenden, aufhören, zu Ende gehen; to draw to a closesich dem Ende nähern, dem Ende zugehen; to draw or bring something to a closeetw beenden; at/towards (Brit) or toward (US) the close of (the) dayam/gegen Ende des Tages; at the close (of business)bei Geschäfts- or (St Ex) → Börsenschluss
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


1 [kləʊs]
1. advvicino, dappresso
close by, close at hand → qui orvicino
to hold sb close → tenere stretto/a qn
close together → vicino
stay close to me → stammi vicino
to follow close behind → seguire da vicino
2. adj
a. (near) → vicino/a; (relative, connection, resemblance) → stretto/a; (friend) → intimo/a; (almost equal, result) → quasi pari; (fight, contest, election, race) → combattuto/a
the house is close to the shops → la casa è vicina ai negozi
they're very close (in age) → sono molto vicini come età (emotionally) → sono molto uniti
at close quarters → da vicino
close combat → combattimento corpo a corpo
that was a close shave (fig) (fam) → l'ho (or l'hai ) scampata per un pelo
b. (exact, detailed, examination, study) → accurato/a, attento/a; (investigation, questioning) → approfondito/a; (surveillance, control, watch) → stretto/a
to pay close attention to sb/sth → stare ben attento/a a qn/qc
to keep a close watch on sb → guardare qn a vista
c. (handwriting, texture, weave) → fitto/a
d. (stuffy, atmosphere, room) → soffocante; (weather) → afoso/a
it's rather close in here → qui c'è aria viziata


2 [kləʊz]
1. n (end) → fine f, chiusura
to bring sth to a close → terminare qc
to draw to a close → avvicinarsi alla fine
2. vi (shut, shop) → chiudere; (lid, door) → chiudersi; (end) → chiudersi, concludersi, finire
3. vt
a. (shut, door, road, shop) → chiudere
to close the gap between two things (fig) → colmare il divario tra due cose
to close one's eyes to sth (fig) → ignorare qc
b. (end, discussion, meeting) → chiudere, concludere; (bank account) → chiudere, estinguere; (bargain, deal) → concludere
close down
1. vi + adv (business) → chiudersi, chiudere (TV, Radio) → terminare le trasmissioni
2. vt + advchiudere (definitivamente)
close in vi + adv (hunters) → stringersi attorno; (evening, night, fog) → calare
the days are closing in → le giornate si accorciano
to close in on sb → accerchiare qn
close off vt + adv (area) → chiudere
close round vi + prepstringersi attorno a
close up
1. vi + adv (people in queue) → stringersi; (wound) → rimarginarsi
2. vt + adv (shop, house, opening) → chiudere; (wound) → chiudere, suturare
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995


(kləus) adverb
1. near in time, place etc. He stood close to his mother; Follow close behind.
2. tightly; neatly. a close-fitting dress.
1. near in relationship. a close friend.
2. having a narrow difference between winner and loser. a close contest; The result was close.
3. thorough. a close examination of the facts; Keep a close watch on him.
4. tight. a close fit.
5. without fresh air. a close atmosphere; The weather was close and thundery.
6. mean. He's very close (with his money).
7. secretive. They're keeping very close about the business.
ˈclosely adverb
Look closely at him; She resembles her father closely.
ˈcloseness noun
close call/shave
a narrow (often lucky) escape. That was a close shave – that car nearly ran you over.
ˌclose-ˈset adjective
(of eyes etc) positioned very near each other.
ˈclose-up noun
a photograph or film taken near the subject and thus big in scale. The close-up of the model showed her beautiful skin.
close at hand
nearby; not far off. My mother lives close at hand.
close on
almost; nearly. She's close on sixty.
close to
1. near in time, place, relationship etc. close to 3 o'clock; close to the hospital; close to his mother.
2. almost; nearly. close to fifty years of age.


(kləuz) verb
1. to make or become shut, often by bringing together two parts so as to cover an opening. The baby closed his eyes; Close the door; The shops close on Sundays.
2. to finish; to come or bring to an end. The meeting closed with everyone in agreement.
3. to complete or settle (a business deal).
a stop, end or finish. the close of day; towards the close of the nineteenth century.
close down
1. (of a business) to close permanently. High levels of taxation have caused many firms to close down.
2. (of a TV or radio station etc) to stop broadcasting for the day (noun ˈclosedown).
close up
1. to come or bring closer together. He closed up the space between the lines of print.
2. to shut completely. He closed up the house when he went on holiday.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


بِجَانِب, قَرِيب, يُغْلِقُ blízko, blízký, zavřít lukke, tæt dicht, nahe, schließen κλείνω, κοντά, κοντινός cerca, cercano, cerrar läheinen, lähellä, sulkea fermer, près, proche blizu, pokraj, zatvoriti accanto, chiudere, vicino a 近い, 近くに, 閉める 가까운, 가까이에, 닫다 dichtbij, sluiten lukke, nær, tett blisko, zamknąć, zamknięty fechar, perto, rente близкий, близко, закрывать nära, stänga, tätt ใกล้, ชิดกัน, ปิด kapatmak, yakın đóng, gần 关闭, 接近, 近的
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


vt. cerrar; encerrar; concluir.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Collins Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


adj cercano; — friend amigo -ga mf cercano; — relative pariente mf cercano; adv cerca; close to your aorta..cerca de su aorta


vt, vi cerrar(se); Close your eyes.. Cierre los ojos…the valve válvula se cierra
English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.