Liu, "Comparison of AIRS, MODIS, CloudSat and CALIPSO cloud top height
retrievals," Geophysical Research Letters, vol.
Radar showed multilayer clouds characterized by cloud top heights
from 1.5 to ~8 km, although, the clear-sky conditions still remained on the downwind side of the mountain ridge (Figure 4).
Yost, 2010b: Evaluation of satellite-based upper troposphere cloud top height
retrievals in multilayer cloud conditions during TC4.
(d) Cross- section of data from the CALIOP instrument; left-hand y-axis shows the tropopause height (black dots) and the cloud top height
(blue and cyan dots; cyan for overshooting cloud top) and the right-hand y-axis shows the integrated attenuated backscatter coefficients in the top cloud layer (red dots, [sr.sup.-1] x [km.sup.-1]).
Figure 6(c) shows the temporal trend of mean cloud top height is plotted for each rain type.
Overall, for convective clouds along the Changma front, the rain intensity is much stronger and the cloud top height is much higher than during any other JJA period (Figures 8 and 9).
Kawasaki, 2001: A survey of thunderstorm flash rates compared to cloud top height
using TRMM satellite data.
Equation (12) is [[tau].sub.c] = (8/5)[([pi]k).sup.2]([[rho].sub.w]/[lambda])[N.sup.2.sub.c][r.sub.e][(H).sup.5] and (13) is [[tau].sub.c] = (9/5)[[rho].sup.-1.sub.w] (W/[r.sub.e](H)), where [[rho].sub.w] is the density of liquid water (1.0 x [10.sup.6] g [m.sup.-3]), A is the adiabatic parameter (set at 2.0 x [10.sup.-3] g [m.sup.-4]), and H is the cloud top height
. The air mass factor k in (12) is set to 0.67 over land and 0.80 over the ocean and hence the curved lines of cloud droplet number concentration over land and ocean follow different paths.
Khaiyer, 2008: An evaluation of operational GOES-derived single-layer cloud top heights
with ARSCL data over the ARM Southern Great Plains site.
Cloud base and cloud top heights
were derived from frequency modulated continuous millimeter wave cloud radar (FMCW); a threshold radar reflectivity of -15 dBZ was used for selection of nonprecipitating clouds.