The change of time scale for the natural processes governing the dynamics of clupeoids
during ontogenetic development poses significant challenges for modeling purposes.
The only diet study of little tunny in Colombian Caribbean waters is that of Moreno (1986): clupeoids
(Harengula sp., Sardinella sp.
Herring, unlike most other clupeoids
, are total spawners with a group-synchronous ovarian organization (Murua & Saborido-Rey, 2003).
Guelinckx J, Maes J, De Brabander L, Dehair SF, Olliever F (2006) Migration dynamics of clupeoids
in the Shede estuary: A stable isotope approach.
Growth of clupeoids
in tropical waters is faster and the life cycle is shorter when compared to temperate areas.
Xenomystus, have somewhat similar 'abdominal scutes', but "the abdominal scutes found in clupeoids
are formed as single median elements, whereas those of notopterids are paired, and therefore do not pass the test of similarity in the establishment of (primary) homology".
"Year-Class Strength and Survival of O-Group Clupeoids
." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42:69-82.
(This scheme is somewhat compressed in most Pacific Island situations with their very narrow continental shelves.) Within the coastal zone are found the big-eye scads, anchovies, clupeoids
, and half-beaks.
Sardine and other clupeoids
respond to oceanographic conditions, and, in the absence of predators and competitors, tend to aggregate near their prey in monospecific, epipelagic (ca.
Clupeiforms showed distinct temporal, diel and tidal patterns, which is consistent with Modde & Ross (1981) results showing that clupeoids
vary more than percoids within 24 h period.
, including Atlantic herring (7.3% of the biomass in 2005) and round herring (Etrumeus teres) (3.5% of the biomass in 2006), were found sporadically in the diet.
Because trawling activities during PBSs were aimed at small pelagic clupeoids
, it was not possible to use CPUE data from these cruises to analyze spatial patterns in juvenile snoek abundance.