with al Qaeda in hostilities against the United States or its coalition partners." (196) By September 2014, the Obama administration asserted that ISIS fell within this definition of "associated forces" and, accordingly, that no additional congressional authorization was required to pursue military action against the group.
(173) Third, the nationals of a cobelligerent
state (i.e., an ally) are not protected persons while their state has normal diplomatic representation in the belligerent state or, if they are in occupied territory, with the occupying Power.
(145) The United States has also avoided providing a precise definition of associated forces, relying instead on generalized criteria, such as whether the new group is a "cobelligerent
" of an AUMF-covered force (al Qaeda or the Taliban).
80-314 (authorizing the acceptance of decorations, orders, medals, and emblems by officers and enlisted men of the armed forces of the United States tendered them by governments of cobelligerent
nations, neutral nations, or other American Republics); Act of May 8, 1954, Pub.
What level of association must a group have to be labeled a cobelligerent
For instance, according to the Obama administration, if an individual is a suspected "cobelligerent
" who might be difficult to capture, the government can take reasonable means to kill the target.
107-40) targets those who perpetrated and supported the 9/11 terrorist attacks, identified as Al Qaeda and the Taliban, but the executive branch has interpreted the authorization to include targeting forces that are cobelligerent
with these two groups, so-called "associated forces." The Islamic State organization, whose antecedents had links to Al Qaeda, might fall within the definition of an associated force, but a public split between the Islamic State and Al Qaeda in early 2014 calls this association into question.
" in a widening conflict with an al Qaeda affiliate that U.S.
Hardly a saint, however, Bowery was a complicated man: muse to Lucian Freud, cobelligerent
of Michael Clark and Charles Atlas, thorn to straight thinking everywhere.
Alone in its fight against overwhelming odds, Finland received no support from the rest of the world during this aggression, and, in short, was forced to take the position that "any enemy of the Soviets is a friend of ours." As a result, Finland was considered a "cobelligerent
" by the Allies.
If President Truman and Prime Minister Atlee had set a precedent of military overflights during a Cold War "conflict," they did so under Chapter VI of the United Nations charter, which, their legal experts affirmed, also justified missions over the Soviet Union because it was an "unannounced cobelligerent
." And because no American or British aerial intruder was ever shot down, that legal interpretation remained unchallenged on July 27, 1953, when all Allied overflights ended with the Korean War Armistice and formal cessation of hostilities.
They now see us as a useful cobelligerent
in their internal struggle for power against their enemies in the Baghdad government and the Kurds.