Automation of the topmost-wage positions is difficult as they (encompassing numerous jobs artificial intelligence creates) necessitate unorganized cognitive operation
and unregulated social interaction.
All specific properties of metonymy in lexical creation stem from the fact that metonymy operates in word formations as a formal cognitive operation
, not as a content one.
In this paper we will use the term cognitive operation
to designate cognitive activity that contributes to meaning-derivation, as discussed in Ruiz de Mendoza (2011) and Ruiz de Mendoza and Galera (2014).
Figuratively, where we would normally expect a conceptual metaphor, this cognitive operation
anchored in an unusual pairing of form and meaning results in a particular conceptualisation of temporality by means of which we activate a time for event metonymy (1), or more specifically, date for singular event (2).
In The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities, cognitive scientists Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner argue that a single cognitive operation
may underlie "diverse human accomplishments," be "responsible for the origins of language, art, religion, science, and other singular human feats," and be "as indispensable for basic everyday thought as it is for artistic and scientific abilities" (vi).
The common thread is the departure from functional cognitive operation
, which leads to unintended outcomes through these various failures in execution (Broadbent et al., 1982).
In other words, rather than teaching reading as a single cognitive operation
that can be applied universally to poetry, newspapers, novels and test passages alike, teaching standardized test passages as a separate genre, in the same manner we would teach poetry different from expository texts may help readers be more successful in both contexts (Santman, 2002).
This can again be partitioned into a 50-ms cognitive operation
to initiate the eye-head movement and 260 ms for the actual motor operation.
Equal in function and operational procedure to these mental means of meaning creation, Turner (2000) cites narrative as one more kind of cognitive operation
. This gives an idea of the broad scope covered by the theory of conceptual integration and of the potential uses its application may bring to the analysis of complex discourse, including more specifically, and for the interest of this paper, complex literary discourse (both narrative and non-narrative).
High-level thinking is any cognitive operation
that places significant demands on the processing taking place in short term memory, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.