Such systems attempt to elicit individual valuations of observable, measurable environmental attributes, but individual incentives to reveal such values decrease with the scope of collective ownership
, even though the ability to discern the relationship between individual actions and collective attributes increases with such scope.
of [X.sub.2] implies that all n consumers have ownership rights.
Its constitution made no reference to "ultimate goals," or "collective ownership
." In fact, being remarkably candid, Bridges is reported to have said, "You can't go getting mad at the employer because under our system he's in business to make profits.
(97) In control of a transitional regime, he expected it to be relatively easily swept away in favour of a democratic order of workers' councils that would "consolidate and strengthen the system of collective ownership
of the means of production and of socialized planning." (197) But Stalinism was not transitional to socialism; and Soviet planning was hardly collective ownership
just waiting for consolidation.
The Constitution defines the "economy of the State" as a planned socialist economy aiming to abolish all forms of exploitation (Article 13) and stipulates three forms of ownership: "Popular ownership" (natural resources, public services and nationalized installations and institutions), "collective ownership
" (owned by cooperative societies, professional associations and popular organizations) and "individual ownership" (private property which can be confiscated for public good only through legislation and against just compensation) (Articles 14 and 15).
Today there is little general sentiment...in favor of the collective ownership
of the means of production....Instead the newer pattern is to preach the virtue of markets in the abstract, and then to insist that government regulation of private enterprises is necessary to correct the legion of supposed market failures that arise in complex market institutions....
Regardless of the theoretical arguments, however, "the proof of the pudding is in the eating." Accordingly, in this paper I apply meta-analysis to 43 studies that together represent a large proportion of the published empirical work on the subject, and by this means I estimate the average correlations between productivity and various forms of participation (worker participation in decision making, profit sharing, worker ownership, and collective ownership
) found by other researchers.
Furthermore, the implementation of these two objectives win require the socialization of a predominant part of the means of economic activity, which the author elaborates to consist in (1) nationalization of the "commanding heights" of the economy and (2) collective ownership
by various associations of much (but not all) of the remainder.
The collective ownership
of the land provides cheer to Dr Krikler, but ignores the brutal fact that everywhere in the world it has acted as a barrier to economic progress.
Number of Outlets/Personnel in Retail Sales by Ownership Year ending Item 1978 1980 1985 1989 1991 Number of outlets (1,000) Retail trade (Total) 1,048 1,463 7,783 8,413 9,241 State ownership 49 127 229 267 290 Collective ownership(a) 891 958 1,362 1,251 1,176 Joint ownership(b) 0.3 3 2 2 Individual ownership 108 378 6,189 6,892 7,773 Number of employees (1,000) Retail trade (Total) 4,474 9,268 17,960 20,330 21,987 Share in labour force 1.11% 2.19% 3.60% 3.67% 3.77% State ownership 976 1,937 2,908 3,517 3,883 Collective ownership
3,362 3,964 6,654 6,846 6,723 Joint ownership 3 29 34 36 Individual ownership 136 473 8,369 9,933 11,345 a Collective ownership
includes supply and marketing co-operatives.
His work, and Howell Harris's companion essay on the meanings accorded industrial democracy in the debates among middle-class reformers and business progressives during the same period create an ideological context for industrial democracy's early history that underscores the profound ambiguity (and utility) of a term that could mean anything from a mode of personal deportment--managers were advised to be "less authoritarian, more consultative"--to a structure of decision-making created for employees by employers, to collective bargaining with an independent union, to the structure of decision-making within that union, to control of work practices by shop majorities, to collective ownership
of the means of production.
Buildings' 11th annual listing of major players in the commercial real estate business - whose collective ownership
and management responsibilities extend to a reported 10.8 billion square feet of space - once again offers readers an extensive compilation of professional data and lends greater insight into the changing role of industry participants.