In short, it is the apolitical, highly collectivistic
and superstition-laced social structure of Pakistan which is extensively responsible for extremism and terrorism, large-scale underdevelopment and bad governance in Pakistan.
It is imperative to investigate procrastination behavior in varying cultural contexts, as research shows that the motivation, underlying dynamics and affect behavior may manifest differently in individualistic and collectivistic
cultures (Lay, 1995).
Digging a bit deeper, we learned that, for Filipinos living far from home, where family and friends play a major part in their very collectivistic
culture, the UAE is a difficult place for them to establish and nurture the kind of close friendships they have grown used to.
Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, and Gelfand (1995) defined the constructs of horizontal (H), vertical (V), individualism (I) and collectivism (C) and supported this distinction in both individualistic and collectivistic
cultures (Triandis & Gelfand, 1998).
to a company), that it has a stronger impact on commitment in countries with collectivism (Felfe, Yan, & Six, 2008), and that it is higher among individuals in countries that are more collectivistic
than individualistic (Kirkman & Shapiro, 2001; Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, & Combs, 2006).
Therefore, in Pakistan (as it is based on a collectivistic
culture) boosting social support system along with the treatment will be beneficial in prevention programmes for reducing stress and the improved health condition of the patient in the wake of severe medical problems.
Therefore, counselors must be aware that Western individualistic cultural models may conflict with refugees' belief systems that are rooted in collectivistic
cultures; may interfere with trauma work; and may inhibit working from a framework that focuses on interpersonal relationships, social networks, interdependence, and a holistic approach to healing.
Chinese people are predominantly collectivistic
regarding the issues of mate selection, childbearing (Kwan, 2000), and employment (Leung, 2002).
Individuals from a collectivistic
culture have high interest in others' thoughts, emotions, and actions (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).
military) is characterized by a combination of individualistic and collectivistic
traits, though a certain cultural flavor tends to predominate.
It is expected that, in a collectivistic
society, people are inclined to violate the law in order to support their own group based on unquestioning loyalty.
For example, the Arab societal system is a collectivistic