(30) K'iche' possessed object utterances (types/tokens) Al Tiyaan 2;0 2;6 3;0 addressee 1/1 dative 1/2 dative 1/1 benefactive 4/4 benefactive 5/9 malefactive 1/1 malefactive 2/2 Al Chaay 2;6 3;0 benefactive 2/6 benefactive 5/11 malefactive 1/1 malefactive 1/1 dative 1/5 comitative
1/2 Carlos 3;0 dative 1/2 malefactive 2/2 Al Tiyaan 3;6 Al Chaay 3;6 benefactive 4/11 malefactive 5/6 dative 1/2 comitative
1/1 addressee 2/2 Carlos 3;6 dative 1/9 malefactive 3/19 benefactive 11/19 addressee 1/1
Blackfoot relative roots include comitative
ohp- ('with'), substitutive ohtahtsiwa- ('instead of), locative it- ('in, at'; it can be used in both spatial and temporal senses), two allatives--viz.
The functions of the Hausa particle da are, among others, an existential predicate, a comitative
preposition, and a coordination conjunction.
All case markers except for the dative, lative and comitative
cases consist of weak formatives.
The ablative =bhay and the comitative
=nun, besides their main function of marking sources (ablative) and conjoined nouns (comitative
) are also used to mark goals/sources in some verbs, and stimuli in experiencer verbs.
Example (7) contains the comitative
preposition with the singular object suffix, and (8) the ablative preposition with the plural suffix:
Also, Tiit-Rein Viitso presented in ALFE a comprehensive survey of how comitative
suffixes emerged from adpositions in several Finnic languages.
An interesting form that was recorded involves the numeral yek followed by the plural form of the oblique marker and the comitative
: yek-en-sa "together" (one-OBL.PL-COM).
That is, there are two core applicative constructions, benefactive and instrumental/ comitative
, and these serve as anchors as it were for the development of additional applicative constructions marked either by the same or distinct morphology" (Peterson 1999: 135).
The possessed entity fills the one-place argument of the existential predicate, whereas the possessor appears as an NP marked as an oblique and is encoded by way of adessive marking or comitative
The instrumental case resulted from the merger of the former translative case and the comitative
case and for a few nominals this distinction is still obligatory, as e.g.
prepositions like with are frequently used to derive symmetric nouns from basic nouns (cf.