Effectiveness: The Role of Involvement and Source Credibility." Journal of Advertising 20, 1 (1991): 38-45.
-Comparison of the general level of prices of an advertiser with those of its competitors without any indication as to which products have been compared in regard to their prices
firms in the United States gradually changed from not using to using comparative advertising
during the 1965-1982 period.
Distance selling and comparative advertising
.The Council heard the presentation of a European Commission report into consumer complaints regarding distance selling and comparative advertising
Similar references to competition in the marketplace are known as comparative advertising
. Despite the threat of costly legal challenges (Buchanan, 1985; Buchanan and Smithies, 1989), comparative advertising
has grown more acceptable.
They provide a comparative analysis of the application of the Directives in question, highlighting the differences and similarities between national laws, pointing to examples of best practices and possible infringements of European legislation.Distance selling and comparative advertising
.The European Commission report on consumers' complaints about distance selling and comparative advertising
will give rise to a statement by the Commission's representative.
This unique attribute of Japanese commercial messages is also reflected in Japanese advertisers, reluctance to use comparative advertising
, which connotes a confrontational (or even shadowy) practice to unfairly denigrate competitors (Ramaprasad and Hasegawa, 1992).
To many practitioners and academics, comparative advertising
is ridiculous; to others, it is a very effective means of competing in the marketing communication war.
Less common violations included failure to submit under form FDA-2253, comparative advertising
, inadequate presentation of established name, promotion of an investigational new drug, inappropriate use of the word "manageable dosing," misleading patient compliance claim, violative reminder advertisement, and so forth.
In response to the lawsuit, Primal Palate denies the allegations and argues McCormick is barred from making those claims under doctrines of fair use, parody comparative advertising
and descriptive use, according to a filing from last week.