Complements are words or groups of words that are necessary to complete the meaning of another part of the sentence. Complements act like modifiers to add additional meaning to the word or words they are attached to. However, unlike adjunct modifiers, they do not add supplemental information—they provide information that is necessary to achieve the intended meaning in the sentence.
Complements, even those that complete the meaning of the subject, are always part of the predicate.
a. Something that completes, makes up a whole, or brings to perfection: a sauce that is a fine complement to fish.
b. The quantity or number needed to make up a whole: shelves with a full complement of books.
c. The full crew of personnel required to run a ship.
d. Either of two parts that complete the whole or mutually complete each other.
2. An angle related to another so that the sum of their measures is 90°.
3. Grammar A word or words used to complete a predicate construction, especially the object or indirect object of a verb, for example, the phrase to eat ice cream in We like to eat ice cream.
4. Music An interval that completes an octave when added to a given interval.
5. Immunology A complex system of proteins found in blood plasma that are sequentially activated and play various roles in the immune response, including lysing bacterial cell membranes, making pathogens more susceptible to phagocytes, and recruiting inflammatory cells to sites of infection or injury. Also called alexin.
6. Mathematics & Logic For a universal set, the set of all elements in the set that are not in a specified subset.
To serve as a complement to: Roses in a silver bowl complement the handsome cherry table.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin complēmentum, from complēre, to fill out; see complete.]
Usage Note: Complement and compliment, though quite distinct in meaning, are sometimes confused because they are pronounced the same. As a noun, complement means "something that completes or brings to perfection" (The antique silver was a complement to the beautifully set table); used as a verb it means "to serve as a complement to." The noun compliment means "an expression or act of courtesy or praise" (They gave us a compliment on our beautifully set table), while the verb means "to pay a compliment to."
1. something that completes or makes perfect: A good wine is a complement to a good meal.
2. the quantity or amount that completes anything: We now have a full complement of bridge players.
3. either of two parts or things needed to complete the whole; counterpart.
4. the full number of officers and crew required on a ship.
a. a word or group of words that completes a grammatical construction in the predicate and that describes or is identified with the subject or object, as small in The house is small or president in They elected him president. Compare object complement, subject complement.
b. any word or group of words used to complete a grammatical construction, esp. in the predicate, including adverbials, infinitives, and sometimes objects.
[1350–1400; Middle English < Latin complēmentum something that completes]
syn: complement, supplement both mean to make additions to something; a lack or deficiency is implied. To complement means to complete or perfect a whole; it often refers to putting together two things, each of which supplies what is lacking in the other: Statements from different points of view may complement each other. To supplement is to add something in order to enhance, extend, or improve a whole: Some additional remarks supplemented the sales presentation.
Usage: This is sometimes confused with compliment but the two words have very different meanings. As the synonyms show, the verb form of complement means `to enhance' and `to complete' something. In contrast, common synonyms of compliment as a verb are praise, commend, and flatter.
1. in a sentence, the words of the predicate, not including the verb. aanvulling كَلِمَه مُتَمِّمَه للخَبَر допълнение complemento doplněk die Ergänzung predikatsord; predikativ κατηγορούμενοcomplemento öeldistäide مسند predikatiivi complémentמשלים वाक्य dopuna predikata, priloška oznaka állítmánykiegészítő pelengkap sagnfylling complemento 補語 보충 vardinė tarinio dalis papildinātājs (gramatikā) pelengkap bepaling van gesteldheid predikatsord, predikativ dopełnienie بشپړ تيا: پوره حساب او بشپړ مقدار complemento complement дополнение doplnok določilo dopuna predikatsfyllnad องค์ประกอบที่ทำให้สมบูรณ์ในประโยค tümleç, tamlayıcı 補語 додаток تکملہ bổ ngữ 补语
2. (something added to make) a complete number or amount. volledige; afronding عَد مُكَمِّل добавка complemento doplnění ergänzen tillæg; supplement συμπλήρωμαcomplemento täiendus مکمل lisäys complémentמכסה अनुपूरक nadopuna, potpuni broj, komplement teljes szám tambahan full tala, tilætlaður fjöldi complemento 定数 보완물 papildymas, (su)komplektavimas, komplektas papildinājums bilangan yang cukup complementtillegg, utfyllinguzupełnienie تکمیل complemento efectiv, completare дополнение doplnok dopolnilo dodatak komplement สิ่งที่เพิ่มเพื่อให้เกิดความสมบูรณ์ tamamlayıcı şey 補充 комплект مکمل کرنے والا phần bổ sung 补足物
to complete, fill up. afhandel, afrond, vervolledig, voltooi; uitvoer; invul يُكَمِّل، يَمْلأ допълвам completar doplnit ergänzen udfylde; fylde op συμπληρώνωcomplementar täiendama کامل کردن täydentää compléter לְהַשלִים किसी को पूर्ण करना učiniti potpunim, biti dopuna kiegészít melengkapi fylla (upp) completare 補う 완전하게 하다, 보충하다 papildyti papildināt melengkapkan completerenfullstendiggjøre, utfylle, fylle opp dopełniać تکمیلول completar a completa дополнять doplniť dopolniti dzavršiti komplettera เสร็จ tamamlamak 補充 доповнювати; укомплектовувати مکمل کرنا bổ sung 补充
It was suggested that chronic arterial thrombosis secondary to autoimmunity may be the main cause of MMS formation., In PNH patient, deficiency of two important complement regulatory proteins on cell surfaces, CD55 and CD59, makes blood cells more sensitive and vulnerable to the action of complement response.
Similarly, nonviral etiologies [42, 43], LPS/D-GaIN-induced ALF , and chronic hepatitis cases [44, 45] could be justified by protein aggregates mediated by vitronectin or clusterin (complement regulatory proteins) , limited to the measurement of the complement components .
Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%.
(1) Because the targeting of cells by CDC is destructive and irreversible, complement activation is tightly regulated by complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) to avoid uncontrolled activation and an autologous immune reaction.