In the third chapter Mohammadreza Pirooz introduces a Minimalist account of obligatory control in Persian, and shows that these constructions appear in the finite subordinate clauses headed by the complementizer
ke, optionally present in the derivation.
Among the topics are why Old Frisian is really Middle Frisian, finiteness and verb fronting, the two infinitives prate and praten, the verbal complex, complementizer
agreement, language changes, contact-induced changes in Modern West Frisian, nasalizing and lengthening, and a lexical theory of schwa-deletion.
In Amharic, the simple imperfect tense is frequently prefixed by a complementizer
like be- = if, so that the basic form ttedars (you [masc]/she come[s]) becomes bettedars = (if you [masc] /she come[s]).
Among the other features investigated, the complementizer
shows greater variability in use and has weak salience as a colloquial marker; as to pronoun suffixation, its low stylistic salience combined with lesser complexity makes the EA variants more attractive to use than the SA variants, which involve active monitoring of case and mood functions.
The point is that the form which ultimately replaced the that + gap sequence was the structure with a deleted complementizer
, the zero + gap sequence, which in an obvious sense seems to be identical with the forbidden structure as far as the status of the subject is concerned.
On the other hand, the predicted head hypothesis predicts no difference at the accusative position among any of the conditions, because all conditions have the same number of predicted heads at the preverbal position: two verbs and a complementizer
In Shakespeare's Othello, however, there is an example of howbeit followed by that, which is either a late reflex of the pleonastic subordinating that, characteristic of late Middle English or, as the original punctuation seems to suggest, a complementizer
following the clause how-be-it, similarly to Chaucer's al be it that, as in (4a).
The rightward complementizer
analysis in (41b) is somewhat harder to reject, based as it is on a treatment by Cheng (1997) of similar sentence-final particles in Mandarin Chinese.
Dizque has developed from the verb decir 'say' and the complementizer
que, originating in a phrase meaning something like 'it is said that'.
The examples in (3) show that this preceding word can also come from a wide variety of syntactic categories: in (a) the word to which 'r attaches is a preposition, in (b) a copula, in (c) a verb, in (d) a noun, in (e) a pronoun and in (f) a complementizer
This pattern is called discontinuous since it deviates from, for instance, the English pattern, where the verbal predicate immediately follows the complementizer
and the subject.
Abbreviations ABS absolutive ACC accusative ADH adhortative ART article AUX auxiliary CLASS classifier COM comitative COMP complementizer
COMPAR comparative DAT dative DECL declarative DEF definite ECM exceptional case marking ELA elative ERG