Therefore, it seems likely that the timing coefficient which measures the convexity of a fund's conditional relation
to the market is likely to vary over time.
The following have been our main findings: (a) because the values on the even if scale are conditional sentences, implicative even if conditionals are truly conditionals: they express a conditional relation
between P and Q; (b) in quite a few cases this relation does not hold between P and the overt Q-clause but rather between P and an implicit Q.
Control by Stimulus Elements in Conditional Relations
The traditional definition of a conditional relation
involves the specification of a sample stimulus and a positive comparison stimulus, without consideration of the prevailing negative comparison stimuli.
For example, Saunders, Saunders, Kirby, and Spradlin (1988) found that after the formation of two equivalence classes with eight members each, the reversal of a conditional relation
of each class produced no changes in the responding of any participant.
However, in the AMTS group, the negative control test trials could not evaluate a conditional relation
because the negative stimuli were the same for all of the sample stimuli; hence, these trials only evaluate simple negative control in this group.
A second condition was conducted with the same participants, designed to prevent sample-S+ relations in the BC conditional discrimination, so that conditional relations
AB and CD would involve both sample-S+ and sample-S- relations, but conditional relation
BC would involve only sample-S- relations.
establishing a conditional relation
between dissimilar stimuli) is required for such tests.
2012), and Travis, Fields, and Arntzen (in press) , a meaningful stimulus most likely serve as a discriminative stimulus for responses, as a member of at least one other conditional relation
, and as a member of many stimulus classes.
In an identity conditional relation
, an individual is presented with a range of sample stimuli along with a set of comparison stimuli, one of which is identical to the sample stimulus; the selection of the comparison that is identical to the sample stimulus would document the presence of an identity conditional relation
Each session for either training or test consisted of 192 trials presented in a semi-random order within blocks of 48 trials according to the following criteria: 1) each comparison location was scheduled to receive 12 correct comparisons; 2) the presentation of correct comparisons in the same location did not repeat more than twice consecutively; and 3) a given conditional relation
did not repeat more than twice consecutively.
Correct responses to the conditional relation
S1-R1 are followed by the unique outcome O1, whereas correct responses to the conditional relation
S2-R2 are followed by the unique outcome O2; all incorrect responses are not followed by any outcome and terminate the particular learning trial.
One is that the conditional discrimination is only partially formed; another is that behavior is being controlled by some features or relations among the stimuli in the trials other than the conditional relation
between the sample and positive comparison (Iversen, 1993, 1997; Iversen, Sidman, & Carrigan, 1986; McIlvane, Serna, Dube, & Stromer, 2000; McIlvane, Withstandley, & Stoddard, 1984; Sidman, 1992; Stromer & Osborne, 1982; Tomanari, Sidman, Rubio, & Dube, 2006).