The scenario above is an example of the well-known Simpson's paradox. Loosely speaking, Simpson's paradox says that the conditional relation
(conditional on gender in each school in the example) does not imply marginal relation, and vice versa.
Therefore, it seems likely that the timing coefficient which measures the convexity of a fund's conditional relation
to the market is likely to vary over time.
The following have been our main findings: (a) because the values on the even if scale are conditional sentences, implicative even if conditionals are truly conditionals: they express a conditional relation
between P and Q; (b) in quite a few cases this relation does not hold between P and the overt Q-clause but rather between P and an implicit Q.
We assumed a proportion of 75% or above correct responses as high performance in a test, and demonstrative for the emergence of a new conditional relation
. In Phase 5, participants from all four groups related the undefined sample and comparisons from class 3 in exclusion trials, with the exception of one 5-year-old (P-4), one 8-year-old (P-5), and two 11-year-old participants (P-9 and P-11).
Further studies with different populations found that the learning of conditional relation
between stimuli after a small number of exposures to exclusion trials is unlikely, even in individuals with typical development (Costa et al., 2001; Domeniconi et al., 2007; Wilkinson & McIlvane, 1997).
For example, Saunders, Saunders, Kirby, and Spradlin (1988) found that after the formation of two equivalence classes with eight members each, the reversal of a conditional relation
of each class produced no changes in the responding of any participant.
Participants were taught conditional relation
XY, with three samples and three comparisons.
Control by Stimulus Elements in Conditional Relations
The traditional definition of a conditional relation
involves the specification of a sample stimulus and a positive comparison stimulus, without consideration of the prevailing negative comparison stimuli.
However, in the AMTS group, the negative control test trials could not evaluate a conditional relation
because the negative stimuli were the same for all of the sample stimuli; hence, these trials only evaluate simple negative control in this group.
In that study, in the BC conditional relation
of Condition B, there was only one C stimulus that was not presented with each B sample, so that stimulus was necessarily the S+.
These data do not provide evidence of the property of symmetry in any conditional relation
. However, learning-set was observed: Performance reached an accuracy of 0.85 earlier in Condition B1 than in Condition [A.sup.1] (see Fig.
(2012), and Travis, Fields, and Arntzen (in press) , a meaningful stimulus most likely serve as a discriminative stimulus for responses, as a member of at least one other conditional relation
, and as a member of many stimulus classes.