Activations above baseline responding of single dopamine neurons in the midbrain were recorded with intracranial electrodes as the conditioned response
. They found that the X stimulus not only counteracted the activations produced by a conditioned excitor (i.e., summation), but it also depressed the dopamine neurons activity below the baseline when presented alone.
In a first work, Hoffland and coworkers  demonstrated that cTBS, when applied on the right cerebellar hemisphere before EBCC, was able to interfere with the acquisition of conditioned responses
(CRs) tested just after conditioning, although retention, reacquisition, and extinction of CR was not affected after one week.
As stated by the authors, the role of contingency-awareness in facilitating a conditioned response
is not clear (Hoffmann, 2011).
Playing a musical instrument, to use Jacobs's lexicon, is a series of conditioned responses
developed through a trial-and-error process in response to various stimuli.
Those of us in the all-volunteer force tend to have a conditioned response
The conditioned response
is always to pile into bonds, be it in the US, UK or Germany, and the outcome is the same--the long end of the curve flattens.
The renewal effect is the partial recovery of an extinguished conditioned response
(CR) produced by a change of contextual stimuli between acquisition, extinction and testing.
The term "conditioned response
" was used by a Russian scientist named Ivan Pavlov.
(2009) proposed that taste aversions may develop from a conditioned response
to a nausea or vomiting episode close in time to the food being eaten.
After every tenth CS-US pairing, participants were asked to rate their perceived salivation responses to the lemon juice US (i.e., the conditioned response
) on a 9-point Likert-type scale.
Then, they would study the amount of drool, and Pavlov observed that the dogs would drool without seeing or smelling the food, so he decided that a conditioned response
was taking place.
Abbreviations: ANS = autonomic nervous system, CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy, CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy, CR = conditioned response
, PNS = parasympathetic nervous system, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, REM = rapid eye movement, SNS = sympathetic nervous system, TBI = traumatic brain injury.