However, if there are many of these sub-band gap states, the electrons in the conduction band
can move slowly back down to the valence band.
on the bottom of conduction band
, which are partially filled in the case of [Ti.
3+] impurity level formed under the conduction band
(CB) induces the high photocatalytic activities of iron-doped Ti[O.
2] nanoparticles absorb photons with energy equal or greater than the prohibited band (> 3 eV), the electrons in the valence band are excited to the conduction band
, leaving behind a positive hole in the valence band.
c,v]), effective mass of electrons in conduction band
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3] film is excited with photons of wavelength [lambda]>890 nm (Figure 3), occurs because in this case the excitation of electrons is induced from surface states towards the conduction band
, which causes a decrease in the deflection of bands in the surface region, which in turn causes an increase in the SPV value.
It was found that only about 10 per cent of the expected electrons are free to migrate to the interface of the two materials to form a conduction band
Generally when a photon of energy equal to or greater than its band-gap width irradiate a-Sb2O4, it leads to the formation of electron/hole (e-/h+) pairs with free electrons produced in the empty conduction band
(e-CB) leaving behind an electron vacancy or "hole" in the valence band (h+VB).
The states at the conduction band
minimum are built of the antibonding B[O.
Among the semiconductors, notably zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are known to be photosensitisers or photocatalysts (Joshi, 2006) These oxides are illuminated by photons having an energy level that exceeds their band gap energy excites electrons from the valence band to the conduction band
and holes are produced in the valence band.
But in order to snare these charges, the electrons must reach the bottom of the conduction band