Goldmann-Favre syndrome (GFS) is a progressive retinal degeneration that develops due to a mutation in the NR2E3 gene, which has a role in the regulation of cone cell
differentiation, and has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.
Mosaics in Chick Retinas: A Statistical Analysis.
In fact, most recently, Xu et al  succinctly showed that maturing cone cell
precursors with mutations in cancer suppressor gene RB1 contained a signalling network with oncogenic effects that resulted in retinoblastoma.
When an S cone cell
sends a lot of messages to the brain, we recognise it as the colour blue.
Szel, "Two different visual pigments in one retinal cone cell
," Neuron, vol.
Nathan Scott Hart and colleagues said that sharks have only one type of cone cell
in their eyes so they can't distinguish between colours.
In comparison, Banks says, "cones have a direct line through the retina to the cortex." Each cone cell
in the retina's center sends an unadulterated signal to the brain.
For example, when volunteers looked at tiny points of red light that had a wavelength of 633 nanometers, the color sometimes appeared green--depending on which type of cone cell
the beam happened to hit.
Of these cone cells
, 64% respond to red light, 32% to green light and 2% to blue light.
Color vision in vertebrates is usually achieved through the interaction of various photopigments in the cone cells
found in the retina.
To give some examples, in vertebrate rod and cone cells
, opsin-mediated G protein activation leads to hyperpolarization (Takemoto and Cunnick, 1990) via the closure of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, whereas in some bivalves it leads to hyperpolarization via the opening of [K.sup.+] channels (Leung and Montell, 2017).
Colour blindness is an inherited trait and is caused by an alteration in the gene that codes for the photopigment in cone cells
. Cone cells
are what allow us to have detailed and colour vision.