However, one of the most prominent limitations of observational studies based on those data sources is the lack of important confounder
The study authors recommend that future EDC studies consider whether a confounder
might have a sex-specific impact on the outcome of interest and incorporate the augmented product term approach in statistical analysis to reduce the risk of inaccurate conclusions.
The study had one important limitation: The authors were unable to adjust for an important confounder
--the indication for colonoscopy.
is a variable that is associated with current exposure and future outcome, predicted by previous exposure, and predicts current exposure.
Given the prospective nature of the study, confounder
information could have been easily collected.
Based on this scenario, sensation seeking could be a confounder
for the effect of alcohol use on risky sex among MSM.
The finding that the association disappears after fully adjusting for genetics and familial confounders
in identical twins suggests that "genetics is the main confounder
" of the relationship between depression and back pain.
Thirdly, it is assumed that there are no omitted variables (also called spurious or confounder
variables in this context) in relationships X [right arrow] M and M [right arrow] Y.
One obvious possible confounder
is that males and females often have different operations (e.
When we started teasing out from each model whether or not they adjusted for" any of these potential confounders
and pooled the effects separately for each confounder
, "any effect of statin use on mortality after pneumonia was completely eliminated," Dr.
Effect of covariates on gastrointestinal pathogen associations * Covariate Pathogens Age Season Gender Vibrio cholerae/rotavirus Confounder
Interaction No effect V.
The study authors asked that researchers note that this could be a confounder
when screening for prostate cancer, and advise caution in interpreting PSA results from patients who are taking any of these medications, especially long term.