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 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, one of the most prominent limitations of observational studies based on those data sources is the lack of important confounder information.
The study authors recommend that future EDC studies consider whether a confounder might have a sex-specific impact on the outcome of interest and incorporate the augmented product term approach in statistical analysis to reduce the risk of inaccurate conclusions.
The study had one important limitation: The authors were unable to adjust for an important confounder --the indication for colonoscopy.
Time-dependent confounder is a variable that is associated with current exposure and future outcome, predicted by previous exposure, and predicts current exposure.
Given the prospective nature of the study, confounder information could have been easily collected.
Based on this scenario, sensation seeking could be a confounder for the effect of alcohol use on risky sex among MSM.
The finding that the association disappears after fully adjusting for genetics and familial confounders in identical twins suggests that "genetics is the main confounder" of the relationship between depression and back pain.
Thirdly, it is assumed that there are no omitted variables (also called spurious or confounder variables in this context) in relationships X [right arrow] M and M [right arrow] Y.
One obvious possible confounder is that males and females often have different operations (e.
When we started teasing out from each model whether or not they adjusted for" any of these potential confounders and pooled the effects separately for each confounder, "any effect of statin use on mortality after pneumonia was completely eliminated," Dr.
Effect of covariates on gastrointestinal pathogen associations * Covariate Pathogens Age Season Gender Vibrio cholerae/rotavirus Confounder Interaction No effect V.
The study authors asked that researchers note that this could be a confounder when screening for prostate cancer, and advise caution in interpreting PSA results from patients who are taking any of these medications, especially long term.