This foe confounding
Thy land, desiring to lay waste the whole world, rises against us; these lawless men are gathered together to overthrow Thy kingdom, to destroy Thy dear Jerusalem, Thy beloved Russia; to defile Thy temples, to overthrow Thine altars, and to desecrate our holy shrines.
This is a mistake, into which the author has been led by trusting to his memory, and so confounding
two places of the same name.
by indication is a critical challenge in evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions.
Like all analytical epidemiology, mixtures methods must be able to deal with confounding
(Braun et al.
It is known to us that major advantages of RCTs to demonstrate causality include low risk of selective bias and minimized the influence of baseline confounding
by randomly assigning the intervention, low risk of performance bias, or detection bias due to blinding.
Often, administrative data does not have access to these kind of lifestyle variables; however, surrogates (such as a physician billing code for smoking cessation counselling or operative interventions on morbidly obese patients) or linked household survey results can be used to attempt to address some of this known residual confounding
. The thought of prospective data collection to supplement an administrative data study is quite daunting, and thus often avoided if possible.
The anomaly caused by lurking or confounding
variables was initially described by E.
[6,7] Reverse causality, selection biases, and unmeasured confounding
may be the reasons for these inconsistent results.
If you are a student of statistics, you may already know what a 'confounder' or "confounding
Dylan led a generation in overthrowing the classic American songbook for a wild, more personal style, forcing reviewers of Shadows to note that in it Dylan is doing something he's always done: "confounding
expectations." Yet in his MusiCares speech, he mocked those who dared say that's his driving motive.
The researchers looked at many potentially confounding
neonatal factors including month of birth, latitude of birth, and breastfeeding status.
Here, the combination of dehydration and dicrotophos exposure produced plasma cholinesterase activity that was not significantly different from reference and pre-exposure values, confounding
the diagnosis of anticholinesterase exposure in dehydrated, dicrotophos-exposed quail.