Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.


 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adj.1.confounding - that confounds or contradicts or confuses
unsupportive - not furnishing support or assistance
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in classic literature ?
This foe confounding Thy land, desiring to lay waste the whole world, rises against us; these lawless men are gathered together to overthrow Thy kingdom, to destroy Thy dear Jerusalem, Thy beloved Russia; to defile Thy temples, to overthrow Thine altars, and to desecrate our holy shrines.
This is a mistake, into which the author has been led by trusting to his memory, and so confounding two places of the same name.
Confounding by indication is a critical challenge in evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions.
Like all analytical epidemiology, mixtures methods must be able to deal with confounding (Braun et al.
It is known to us that major advantages of RCTs to demonstrate causality include low risk of selective bias and minimized the influence of baseline confounding by randomly assigning the intervention, low risk of performance bias, or detection bias due to blinding.
Often, administrative data does not have access to these kind of lifestyle variables; however, surrogates (such as a physician billing code for smoking cessation counselling or operative interventions on morbidly obese patients) or linked household survey results can be used to attempt to address some of this known residual confounding. The thought of prospective data collection to supplement an administrative data study is quite daunting, and thus often avoided if possible.
The anomaly caused by lurking or confounding variables was initially described by E.
[6,7] Reverse causality, selection biases, and unmeasured confounding may be the reasons for these inconsistent results.
If you are a student of statistics, you may already know what a 'confounder' or "confounding variable" is.
Dylan led a generation in overthrowing the classic American songbook for a wild, more personal style, forcing reviewers of Shadows to note that in it Dylan is doing something he's always done: "confounding expectations." Yet in his MusiCares speech, he mocked those who dared say that's his driving motive.
The researchers looked at many potentially confounding neonatal factors including month of birth, latitude of birth, and breastfeeding status.
Here, the combination of dehydration and dicrotophos exposure produced plasma cholinesterase activity that was not significantly different from reference and pre-exposure values, confounding the diagnosis of anticholinesterase exposure in dehydrated, dicrotophos-exposed quail.