Emotional expression has been defined as "a type of speech act different from both performative and constative
utterances, which both describe (constative
utterances) and change (performatives) the world, because emotional expression has both an explanatory and a self-altering effect on the activated thought material of emotion" (Reddy 2001, 128).
Recovering its holistic roots and assailing it with certain strands of philosophy or Bill Reddy's emotive (which holds that emotional utterances are both constative
and performative, that they both describe and change the world: when 1 say "I am happy" I describe a state and exact a change on this state) allows us to move beyond the dichotomy.
As such, the correspondence between a signifier and its signified--the relative truth or falseness of a statement--cannot be judged in performative statements like it can in constative
statements, or statements that describe reality.
Our need to rely on inferences or deductions rather than constative
propositions is due to the fact that his short stories arise out of the decline of the realist bourgeois configuration of the novel as well as his own failed pursuit of the novelistic form.
Austin points out in his lecture series titled How to Do Things with Words that certain utterances, called "performatives," can entail action and not only record or describe action as constative
or declarative sentences do.
Unfortunately, for Austin and for us, it is often assumed that this statement performs a constative
Isomorphic with the difference Matthiessen divined between the constative
and optative moods of thought in postwar America's ancestor renaissance, The American Renaissance, (11) postwar identity does not--cannot--differentiate the labor of description and the affects of sociological expectation.
and in order to relate professing to an act of faith, which in turn relates to the structure of literary fiction that takes the form of a performative than a constative
set of utterances, as well as to what he calls a "politics of the virtual.
If we take Derrida seriously, however, we will forego attempts to make this event "rigorously determined by way of constative
34) As frozen texts, they inhabit a liminal zone between constative
and performative speech: they describe a life in the past, while at the same time they attempt to conjure the life in their laconic distillation of significant details.
Fraenkel explains that Austin's differentiation between performative and constative
utterances is in fact an impasse because it neglects the qualities of written utterances, limiting the act of enunciation to the present moment.
Moreover, Yurchak's study of Soviet authoritative discourse reveals an increasing imbalance between its performative dimension (ritualized participation in acts perpetuating discourse) and constative
dimension (engagement with the meanings coded in said acts).