But these acts may have undetermined, perhaps predictable, but ultimately uncontrollable and contingent effects
. Such contingent effects
She explores the multiple and contingent effects
of the concept of autonomy by exploring examples of how the ideal of self-governance (autonomy) has shaped social practices in relation to adolescent sexuality, the drug war, the animal rights movement, and fitness culture in order to show how "autonomy is linked with the Foucauldian idea of subjectification as a modality of power that operates to establish limits on subject formation and, in doing so, creates new forms of subjectivity".
Indeed, the central theme is the contingent effects
on technology in organisations of local and wider political contestation, institutional forms and state policy.
To understand when and how responses vary, we must consider both non-contingent and contingent effects of reinforcers.
Levels of variability were much higher in the VAR group than in the REP, as was expected from the contingent effects of reinforcers on variability, shown in the bottom graph of Figure 5.
This study investigates the contingent effects of task environment and task knowledge on auditors' generation of financial reporting alternatives in a situation where the client has an aggressive reporting preference for a complex, ambiguous revenue-recognition issue.
The Contingent Effect of Risk Context and Task Knowledge
Schunk (1993) investigated the contingent effects
of music on feeding behavior of premature infants.
She points out that they rely on contingent effects
rather than something intrinsic to any such act.
This leads to the basic question: If God's will is an irresistible cause, how can finite causes produce contingent effects
? After some unsuccessful responses in his early commentary on the Lombard's Sentences, Aquinas eventually based his mature answer on the mysterious and incomprehensible transcendence of divine causality: God's will is such a unique and infinitely powerful agent that it also produces the modality of its effects, whether necessary or contingent.
Probably every time we have produced five to "2+3" something different has occurred: It might have allowed us to remember something longer; it might have allowed us to do a further mathematical operation based on "5" instead of "2+3"; or many different people might have said many different things following our production of "five." We add two and three regularly in different ways in our lives but these probably have very different contingent effects
. This is why cognitive psychologists can talk about people processing information without discussing the consequences maintaining the "processing": The behaviors nominalized as "processing" are reinforced through generalized social shaping.
Although we applaud Bahm's concern, his model of intrinsic justification will not improve substantive clash because it incorrectly assumes that essential effects are necessarily competitive, and it invalidates debate about contingent effects
. Worse, Bahm's model decreases substantive clash because it imbues negative counterplans with absolute solvency and fiat powers, and fails to reconcile the inherent conflict between arguing jurisdictional issues and promoting substantive resolutional clash.