"Because of limitations in the design of these studies, however, it was not possible to determine whether HIV infections were due to the type of contraceptive method
used or other factors.
Although 96 per cent of married Pakistani women are aware of at least one modern contraceptive method
, only 22 per cent are currently using modern contraceptives, whereas another eight per cent use less effective traditional methods.
"This rate means that only about three unintended pregnancies occur per 100 women in a year compared to a Pearl Index of 80 in couples not using a contraceptive method
," said David F.
The study was limited by several factors including the use of self-reports, lack of data on the exact start of contraceptive initiation, and the lack of association between contraceptive method
and unwanted pregnancy, the researchers noted.
Among currently married women, the most popular modern family planning method is the male contraceptive and female sterilisation (each used by nine percent).More women in urban areas are more likely to use a contraceptive method
than women in rural areas, 43 percent versus 29 percent respectively.
The percentage of women at risk for unintended pregnancy using a most or moderately effective contraceptive method
** ranged from 26.1% to 65.7%.
The effectiveness of a contraceptive method
is most easily defined as the number of unintended pregnancies occurring in a year for every 100 women using the method.
Contraception indicates the intentional prevention of pregnancy using any traditional or modern contraceptive method
. Modern methods include various devices, condoms, pills, hormonal methods, and surgical methods such as tubectomy and vasectomy whereas traditional methods include sexual practices such as coitus interrupts, withdrawal, or lactational amenorrhea.
 It is estimated that the average woman would bear 15 children over her reproductive lifetime if no contraceptive method
(4.) Kavanaugh ML and Jerman J, Contraceptive method
use in the United States: trends and characteristics between 2008, 2012 and 2014, Contraception, 2017, https://www.guttmacher.org/article/2017/10/contraceptive-method-use-united-states-trends-and-characteristics-between-2008-2012.
The biological and social dependence of the couple on each other regarding their authority to decide family size, choice and frequency of use of contraceptive method
makes it important to include men in this research area.
Teaching women about birth control electronically can be effective in helping them choose a contraceptive method
, research finds.