The genus, or rather family, of Epeira, is here characterized by many singular forms; some species have pointed coriaceous
shells, others enlarged and spiny tibiae.
6 Oral setae of culm and foliage leaves coriaceous
, brown or purple; branches per node three, subequal; foliage leaf blades abaxially with a patch of yellow to brown cilia at the base on one side of the midrib....
brasiliensis was 8x7cm, ovate-shaped, with a coriaceous
consistency and three main veins.
Leaves 2.5-7.5 by 0.7-1.8 cm., lanceolate or narrowly obovate-oblong, coriaceous
, entire or with a few large spinous teeth, dull green above, pale and glaucous beneath, secondary nerves not prominent on the upper surface.
Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate, 2.2- 6.4 cm long, 0.7-2.4 cm wide, spirally alternate, crowded at the apex of the branches, discolorous, margin entire, revolute, apex slightly acute to obtuse, base long-attenuate in a pseudopetiole up to 2.5 cm long; leaf blade coriaceous
, greenish brown, olive or light brown, 3-veined from near base, adaxially glabrous or sparsely floccose in the proximal third and prominently reticulate-veined, densely yellow, ochre or yellowish-ochre lanuginose, apparently 3-veined abaxially; young leaves adaxially with dense to sparser deciduous whitish hirsute trichomes, abaxially densely orange to yellow lanuginose.
Leaves laxly spreading in a dense rosette, 50 to 80 in number: leaf sheaths ovate to broadly elliptic, 8-10 x 6-9 cm, castaneous especially adaxially, densely brown punctate-lepidote especially adaxially; leaf blades narrow triangular, attenuate, 25-40 x 2-3 cm, moderately coriaceous
, densely punctate-lepidote especially abaxially, grey to grey-green.
The characteristics of the vegetation may also influence the accumulation of organic material; thick, abundant root mats, the coriaceous
(leatherlike) leaves common in the cloud forest and the high levels in leaves and roots of complex chemicals that may slow the rate and degree of the decomposition that leads to humus formation.
Relationship between species of wasps of the Polistini tribe and plant species used as nesting substrate and their characteristics (Arbo.: arborious; Cor.: coriaceous
, Dec.: deciduous; Eve.: evergreen, Fle..: Fleshy; Gla.: glabra; Hem.: hemiparasite; Her.:herbaceous; Mem: membranous; Op.: open nest; Pub: pubescent; Roug.: rough; Shr.: Shrub; Sem.: semideciduous; Smo.: smooth; Sub.: subcoriacea).
Fully winged robust specimens, with dense setae and coriaceous
or rugose surface sculpture on the head and mesosoma; metasoma densely pubescent; the head is usually narrower than the mesosoma, transverse in anterior view, with genae strongly broadened behind eyes, the malar sulcus always absent; notauli usually are incomplete, impressed in the posterior 2/3 of the mesoscutum; scutellar foveae indistinctly delimited, confluent; all tarsal claws with strong basal lobe.
texana, with coriaceous
to subcoriaceous leaves, very pale green to pale yellowish green or glaucous below, glabrous or with straight to wavy or twisted hairs never obscuring the surface; b) Arbutus cf.