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The process by which squamous epithelial cells in vertebrate animals develop into tough protective layers or structures such as hair, hooves, and the outer layer of skin; the final stage of keratinization.

[Latin cornū, horn; see ker- in Indo-European roots + -fication.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


the process of producing a horn or horny substance
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(ˌkɔr nə fɪˈkeɪ ʃən)

the formation of a horny layer of skin, or horny skin structures, as hair, nails, or scales, from squamous epithelial cells.
[1835–45; corn2 + -i- + -fication]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


organic change into a hornlike form.
See also: Bones
-Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Ichthyoses describe a group of disorders of cornification in which the epidermis differentiates abnormally, leading to generalized scaling of the skin.
After the cornification process, the channels were dissolved and the alginate removed to leave a hollow network.
Papanicolaou stain however was able to show the various shades of orange, pink and blue associated with level of cornification. The presence of bacteria was also noticed clearly with the use of toluidine blue in the present study.
While Linhart and Dhungel (2013) identified the DBV to be rather isolated in the public discourse on "cornification" (9), our results show that this actor--as member of the broadly oriented pro coalition--managed to find several actors supporting its story lines in the debate on biofuels.
The absence or mutation of FoxN1 can cause hair shaft curl in the hair follicles due to cornification defects, which leads to the loss of its ability to penetrate the epidermis and form normal hair.
Collodion baby (congenital lamellar ichthyosis) is a cornification disorder that is clinically characterized by exfoliation in the skin and histopathologically characterized by hyperkeratosis.
Tobacco smoke contains various chemicals that interact with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and aryl hydrocarbon receptors on keratinocytes, thereby inducing acanthosis, epithelial hyperplasia, and cornification. Fibroblasts and immune cells are also activated to release proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8 (15).
Otherwise, vaginal epithelial cells respond to E2 by undergoing cornification (production of keratins and involucrin), a process that involves both proliferation and differentiation.
Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of cornification characterized by the triad of congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma/ichthyosis linearis circumflexa, trichorrhexis invaginata (bamboo hair), and an atopic diathesis.
Apoptotic cells die in a controlled and regulated fashion; therefore, apoptosis is distinct from other uncontrolled cell death processes, such as necrosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and cornification (9).
The criteria that were studied in histopathological sections consisted of hemorrhage, fibrin deposition, polymorphonuclear cell and mononuclear cell infiltration, reepithelialization, cornification of epithelium, fibroblast content, collagen content, revascularization, necrosis, presence of fibrocytes, maturation and organization of collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels.