Striatum is considered as the input structure of basal ganglia and it is together with Subthalamic nucleus (STN), Globus pallidus (internal(GPi), external(GPe) and ventral pallidum) and substantia nigra (pars compacta and pars reticulata) [47,48] form the direct, indirect and hyper-direct pathways of cortico-
striatal circuit [20,24].
In our study, most of the patients were using cortico-steroids either as rescue pulsed steroid therapy during acute flare of RA or as adjunct therapy with other DMARDs at some part of treatment, so it was difficult to assess cortico-
steroid association with MetS, but some other studies proved that there is no significant association of cortico-
steroids with MetS.16 In our study disease duration had no significant association (p=0.42) with MetS when the cases were evaluated on the basis of disease duration of more than 3 years and 3 years or less, but one study11 showed that MetS had significant association with RA of disease duration less than 3 years.
Left) Significant (>2 cm) Average Renal Enlarged 03 03% Length (>12 cm) 62 62% (8.69 cm) Normal 35 35% (8-12 cm) Small (<8 cm) Average Normal Parenchymal ([greater than 75 75% Thickness or equal to] 18 18% (1.77 cm) 15 mm) 07 07% Reduced (<15 mm) Could not be assessed Average Reduced 84 84% Cortical Could not be 16 16% Thickness assessed (8.5 mm) Table 5: USG Findings Related to Echogenicity and Cortico-
Medullary Differentiation in Cases with Chronic Kidney Disease (N=100) Renal Changes No.