(5) In patients with iNPH, in addition to altered CSF flow, enlarged ventricles compress the corticospinal tracts
in the lateral ventricles, (6) which is theorized to induce PBA symptoms.
The descending corticospinal tracts
and ascending dorsal columns decussate in the medulla while the ascending lateral spinothalamic tracts decussate within one or two levels of the entrance of the dorsal roots.
WD can be secondary to some diseases, especially stroke. It has been reported that WD may occur in the 1st week after stroke (at the earliest), and that corticospinal tracts
are commonly involved., The nerve fibers in the pons are concentrated and complex, particularly in the basis pontis.
Hot cross bun sign refers to the cruciform shaped pontine T2 hyperintensity in multiple system atrophy due to selective loss of myelinated transverse pontocerebellar fibers and neurons in the pontine raphe and sparing of the pontine tagmentum and corticospinal tracts
.3,6 Though hot cross bun sign is seen often in MSA, it is not pathognomonic but only a supportive sign on clinical background.7
Fiber tractography using diffusion tensor imaging revealed no serious damage to the corticospinal tracts
on either side (Figure 1(b)).
 Typical patterns of brain involvement in NMOSD, although not pathognomonic, include lesions of the dorsal medulla/area postrema, periependymal regions in the brainstem, diencephalic structures, or cerebral hemispheres or long lesions spanning much of the corpus callosum or corticospinal tracts
, corresponding to regions of high AQP4 expression.
These results suggest that sprouting across the damaged and healthy sides, activation of the ventral corticospinal tracts
, and propriospinal neurons were complexly involved in the growth of compensation pathways assumed by the electrophysiological verification (Figure 11).
Our present patient showed full eye movement, severe pseudobulbar palsy, and mild tetraplegia, probably because the area of infarction was limited within almost the central portion of the peduncle with the sparing of cortical efferent pathways mediating the voluntary conjugate movements and major corticospinal tracts
. Although the exact localization of the cortical efferent pathways mediating the voluntary conjugate movements was unclear, the medial portion of the peduncle was probably related to the voluntary eye movement.
Using MRI, it was found that grafts had braided the left side of the spinal cord, where the majority of these nerve grafts were implanted, and neurophysiological examinations confirmed the restitution of the integrity of the corticospinal tracts
and the voluntary character of recorded muscle contractions .
sending the message via the corticospinal tracts
to a limb
SAN DIEGO, Calif., March 28, 2016 -- Researchers here have successfully directed stem cell-derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue in damaged corticospinal tracts
of rats, resulting in functional benefit.
Morphology criterion: Impaired motor conduction of the corticospinal tracts
by tracking changes in the pattern and duration of MEP waveform morphology.