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They came to the conclusion after a five-year-long survey of 200,000 galaxies, stretching back seven billion years in cosmic time.
If you want to connect the dots, you need samples of galaxies that span very broad ranges" of cosmic time, he says.
Individual voids may have a blob-like asymmetry, with certain parts expanding faster than others, but combine enough voids and you can generate a statistical average, a "standard sphere." This generic void expands over cosmic time in a predictable way.
Another result is that a gradual decrease in the AGN fraction is seen with cosmic time since the Big Bang.
"The universe was remarkably consistent [in making stars] for a fairly large amount of cosmic time."
The Hubble constant in today's universe, and its changes through cosmic time, are the keys to knowing the universe's nature, history, and fate.
These instruments provide information on the number, brightness, colors, shapes, and star formation rates of galaxies over a huge span of cosmic time, beginning a few billion years after the Big Bang and continuing to the present.
The high-speed jet is probably episodic and will live for only a few centuries, a blink of the eye on a cosmic time scale.
Peering far back in cosmic time, the Hubble Space Telescope has spied a group of 18 diminutive youngsters that may represent the building blocks of a giant galaxy like the Milky Way.
Unlike previous studies, which examined young stellar populations in galaxies at various epochs in cosmic time, Heavens's team studied present-day stellar populations in 96,545 nearby galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.