In our modest research in 1995, we investigated a possible mechanism to explain the negative effects of cigarette smoking on individuals who were indirectly exposed to smoke, that is, passive smokers, through pulmonary function tests and urinary cotinine
Keywords: Surfactant protein-D, COPD, Cotinine
, Biomarker, Sex difference.
* NHANES includes a home interview and physical examination at a mobile examination center where biologic specimens are collected for laboratory testing, including serum cotinine
, an indicator of recent nicotine exposure (4,5).
In an unadjusted analysis there was a significant correlation between cotinine
levels and airflow obstruction (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.23).
The most important and reliable biologic indicator of nicotine is cotinine
in smokers and individuals who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (16).
The real rate of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, whether active or passive, can be determined by measuring saliva cotinine
Introd uction: To ascertain the benefit of adding urinary cotinine
testing to self-reported tobacco use in identifying tobacco use among pregnant patients and associations with birth outcomes.
One such biomarker is cotinine
(e.g., Higgins et al., 2004; Tidey et al, 2011).
In NHANES, covariates were obtained from the questionnaire (age, race/ethnicity, gender, smoking, asthma, COPD, wheeze, antiinflammatory medication usage), from laboratory analyses (cotinine
, atopy), and from physical examination (height, weight).
A new study also reports the presence of significant nicotine on the hands of children was associated with equally significant levels of the harmful tobacco metabolite cotinine
Urine samples were collected in aseptic plastic containers to measure urinary levels of cotinine
 and creatinine , with subsequent mathematical calculation of the cotinine
creatinine ratio (CCR), and then supernatant was carefully collected after centrifugation for 20 minutes at 2000-3000 rpm.