Citrullus colocynthis, Helicoverpa armigera, IPM, Cotton bollworm
, Insecticide resistance.
zea (Boddie), attacks many economically important crops such as corn (as corn earworm, Archer & Bynum 1994; Wiseman & Widstrom 1992), cotton (as cotton bollworm
, Ellsworth & Bradley 1992), tomatoes (as tomato fruitworm, Walgenbach et al.
Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) had been regarded as the most vicious of the insect pests attacking on cotton crop in Pakistan during 1990s and early2000s.
Simultaneously, the quantity of insecticides used to control cotton bollworm
reduced by 96% from over 5,700 metric tons to as low as 222 metric tons of active ingredient in 2011.
Pending regulatory approvals, these varieties are expected to be launched in 2012 and will offer cotton growers protection against cotton pests such as cotton bollworm
, tobacco budworm and armyworms.
King chose the funnel-web spider because earlier work carried out by a group at Deakin University had demonstrated the efficacy of funnel-web venom against cotton bollworm
, a crop pest known to be resistant to most insecticides.
However, there are associated adverse impacts on parasitic natural enemies of cotton bollworm
Cultivars containing the Monsanto Bt gene are highly resistant to tobacco budworm [Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)] and pink bollworm [Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)] larvae, but are less resistant to the cotton bollworm
[Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and the American bollworm [H.
With respect to the reported failure of Monsanto's Bt cotton to control the cotton bollworm
in Texas, the EPA is closely monitoring the situation.
Using genetic engineering techniques, a team of Australian researchers has created plant cells which produce a virus that kills a costly agricultural pest, Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm
Helicoverpa armigera commonly known as cotton bollworm
is an important pest of many agricultural crops of economic importance all over the world.
The intention was to lessen pesticide use on Australian cotton farms, which are plagued by the cotton bollworm
and the native bollworm (Helicoverpa species).