civilians (frequently framed as noncombatant evacuation); securing forces, bases, joint security areas, and lines of communication; and defensive countermeasures (counterdeception
, counterpropaganda, and counter-improvised explosive device).
(76) They also need to understand potential adversaries' surveillance and reconnaissance doctrine and tactics, sensor designs and capabilities, sensor network architecture (including data transmission and fusion), and counterdeception
principles and applications for national security.
The fifth article is a piece on evaluating behavior called "A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception
In 1999, Shulsky, along with his fellow Chicago alumnus and Strauss protrg6 Gary Schmitt, founder of the "Project for the New American Century" (PNAC), wrote an essay entitled, "Leo Strauss and the World of Intelligence," which attacked American intelligence-community icon Sherman Kent for failing to understand that all intelligence work ultimately comes down to deception and counterdeception
. For Shulsky (as expressed in his article), the goal of intelligence is to serve the needs of policymakers in making possible the attainment of policy goals.
If we apply counterdeception
, which corresponds to an awareness of the principles of suggestion as used in magic, we can begin to interpret an adversary's schemes.
Competition among and within groups required humans to be thinkers, involving deception and counterdeception
. Thus, the brain became a tool to solve social problems, and greater intelligence was a selected evolutionary trait."
Defensive IO includes information assurance (IA), OPSEC, physical security, counterdeception
, counterpropaganda, counterintelligence (CI), EW, and SIO.
It also incorporates defensive counterinformation - information assurance, operational security, counterintelligence, counter-PSYOPS, electronic protection and counterdeception
A Cognitive Model for the Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception
. San Diego, CA: Naval Oceans Systems Center.
Heuer, Jr., "Strategic Deception and Counterdeception
: A Cognitive Process Approach," International Studies Quarterly 25, no.
Press, 1976); Richard Heuer, "Cognitive Factors in Deception and Counterdeception
," in Strategic Military Deception, ed.