During Unit 3, social movements are explored as a form of counterpower
that involves social actors challenging 'the power embedded in the institutions of society for the purpose of claiming representation for their own values and interests' (Castells, 2015, p.
It can be situated as part of Manuel Castells's (2007, 2013) concept of communication power and counterpower
in the sense that there are different types of communication flows that shape our networked society.
Although many of the poems marked by molehills appear nostalgic, even apolitical, I argue that the ubiquitous molehills in Clare's middle period poetry amount to a manifestation of what David Collings identifies as a monstrous return of the repressed counterpower
of the crowd asserting its common rights.
The guarantee of permanent democracy is not the filling up of all the dead times and empty spaces by the forms of participation or of counterpower
; it is the continual renewal of the actors and of the forms of their actions, the ever-open possibility of the fresh emergence of this fleeting subject.
I argue that these less tangible changes can be made visible if we focus on the physical and social constitution of space as a window into the multiple ways that power and counterpower
are enacted, contested, and negotiated.
There is a need to extend the strong electoral force that we have now from the ballot to organizations that will turn the thirst for change into a coherent counterpower
. Liberation, after all, is a social act.
Loader and Dan Mercea, eds., Social Media and Democracy: Innovations in Participatory Politics (New York: Routledge, 2012); Kristi DeWolf, "Counterpower
in a Dual Network: An Examination of Young Canadians Using Facebook to Engage in Political Activity," ma Thesis, Acadia University, 2014.
An Ethnography of Counterpower
in Southern France, London: Ashgate.
The aim is to put into practice principles of solidarity, equality, pluralism, and horizontality so as to resource the potential to establish counterpower
to the alienation and dislocation associated with contemporary capitalism.
It sees itself rather as a grassroots counterpower
set on building the embryo of an alternative economy based on the necessities of life.
Be the counterpower
, let it be that you are here to serve, not to take over," Ramadan said.