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One of the many authors Hamburg discusses to illustrate his thesis is the Orthodox priest Simeon Polotskii (1629-80), who grew up in the Belorussian and Ukrainian regions and whose thinking was schooled by the theological debates that took place in the course of the Jesuit counterreformation. Although Simeons ideas, as expounded in his poems "Polity," "Magistrate," and "A Distinction" as well as in his "comedies" On King Nebuchadnezzar and The Comedy of the Prodigal Son, reflect the kinds of problems (like that of political injustice) that were being discussed in Western Europe in an increasingly secular context at that time, Polotskii's intention was not to secularize political thought.
As the English state resorted to increasingly brutal and barbaric measures, many English subjects concluded that the counterreformation was itself deeply flawed.
Has she forgotten the suffering in the 15th and 16th centuries with the Reformation and the Counterreformation?
Religious reformers like Meneses became targets of the Counterreformation, so it comes as no surprise that in the same chapter, and for the umpteenth time, Cervantes criticizes the Inquisition.
Remarkably, for instance, it remained open to Protestant scholars during the Counterreformation. Eminent scholars associated with Padua included Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), who also studied in Cracow and Bologna, and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), who was a professor ofmathematics there.
A global, market-radical counterreformation led to massive social splits, the rise of the working poor, and other marginalized groups in rich countries as well as a much-discussed relative decline of the middle class.
A Counterreformation interpretation of this scheme would most likely replace the dialectic of presence-absence with dialectical oppositions on a moral, or anagogic, trajectory: forgiveness-sin, heaven-hell, purgatory-redemption, death-rebirth, etc.
On Christian Iconography is highly recommended for college and public library art shelves, and would make a superb resource for a course on Spanish baroque art or counterreformation visual culture.