(2) The noted counterreformer Francesco Bocchi concurred with the interpretation of "divine" as applied to the "perfect" Michelangelo.
Indeed, on this philosophical level, a fundamental incompatibility existed between Michelangelo and the Counter-Reformation -- which may help to explain in part why among writers of the seventeenth century his reputation waned, though his colleagues had praised him.(22) Solitude, Hegel would have said, nourished his being; only a mind conscious of man's alienation could produce the Last Judgment mural, which the counterreformers instinctively misinterpreted as being heretical.
In Europe, Christianity had permeated all sectors of public life by the end of the sixteenth century, to the extent that the reformers and counterreformers
managed to mobilize the populace towards the denominational orientations which have characterized European Christianity until today.
The author surveys the impact of these motivations on the content of economic reforms, outlines the strategies of counterreformers and predicts the future of reforms in Soviet-type economies.
"Counterreformers" in STES, indeed, usually are in the party and often coalesce around members of the ruling group itself.
Even if they do not act collectively but only individually, the "counterreformers" "unusual position in the party and the bureaucracy will help them throw sand into the machinery of reforms.
Although the counterreformers are very effective in adjusting their obstructive actions to different circumstances, they probably cannot always implement their first-best (i.e., completely reform-suppressing) solutions and may try to abort reforms, at least in part,
"Counterreformers" enjoy greater latitude, however, in the choice of measures that will allow them to retain control over economic activity and to ensure that reforms will not succeed.
Pseudo-reorganization was a typical maneuver of "counterreformers" in the Czechoslovak reforms of 1967, the Hungarian reforms of 1968, all Polish reforms of 1956-1958, 1973 and 1982, and the Soviet reforms of the 1980s.