A critical analysis of Boyariris position can be found in Cooper, "A Diasporic Critique of Diasporism." For critiques of Boyariris stance on Israel/Palestine, see Alan Arkush, "State and Counterstate
," in Jewish Review of Books 6 (Summer 2011), and idem.
Indeed, where the Communists actually took over the state and imposed severe oppression on the Catholic population for a long period of time, a kind of counterstate
Integralism developed, in which the Catholic community became so integrated that the church itself could carry out some state-like activities, in opposition to the official state.
(Civil servants were recruited for the Dail departments of the counterstate
and there were, for example, seventy-nine staff in the Dail department of local government at the time of the Treaty.) Service in Northern Ireland seemed unattractive to most, as the prospects began to look more promising in a future Free State.
Instead, by skillfully employing multifaceted campaigns on diverse lines of effort, unfolding in both tangible and intangible space, the insurgent could systematically build a counterstate
that, when powerful enough, could challenge the incumbent in a conventional campaign, destroy it, and then fill the void by becoming the new state.
Toward that end, planners must move away from a counterstate
, Cold War mind-set.
The militant Islamist construct that illustrates such a parallel hierarchy is a virtual counterstate
known as the da'wa.
Thoreau here counterstates
a well-worn cultural trope, for in Christian tradition the "apple" offered by the beguiling serpent is the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.