31) As countersubjects
to national themes, the texts' speaking subjects use forms of the national language; through contrast, their counterdiscourses amplify discrepancies in popular and national themes, enhancing identification of national policy failures and of dominant voices of ignorance or indifference.
Scheidemann's frequent use of imitation at the inversion, and of regular countersubjects
, reveals a concern with the types of counterpoint described in the treatises.
The fugal writing of the second aria treats subjects and countersubjects
in a variety of styles: free, sequential, chromatic, canonic, stretto, and cadenza.
There are no countersubjects
in the Fugue, and each voice states different material to accompany the subject statements in the exposition.
By examining these sketches, Caplin demonstrates that for Beethoven, the subject of the fugue was set in time, and that the compositional process revolved around the development of successful countersubjects