'I always ask leave, in the interests of science, to measure the crania
of those going out there,' he said.
179 skulls were photographed with a Nikon camera, the crania
and mandibles were analyzed separately, 469 photographs were taken and subsequently analyzed (Table I).
We obtained 41 ear-normal cadaver crania
specimens for study in our temporal bone laboratory and isolated 10 for further analysis: the 5 with the largest areas of mastoid pneumatization and the 5 with the smallest.
Such practices are commonly manifested in the archaeological record as deposits of isolated crania
(lacking mandibles) and sometimes full skulls (including associated mandibles) found in a variety of secondary depositional contexts.
With these findings, the Georgian National Museum, Crania
Heritage Sciences Inc.
A total of 218 adults (101 unmodified crania
, 117 modified crania
) were used for the study due to the requirement of the mandible for the cephalometric analyses despite the availability of more crania
in the museum collections (Table 2).
It appears that some bones were removed during a cursory search for relics, including two crania
. When the site was mapped in 1994, one of the surface crania
lay 58 m east of the grave and the second 21 m to the northeast.
The male/female ratios for the mean measurements were greater than unity, indicating that the male crania
were larger in all linear dimensions than female crania
This paper analyses the metrical variability of human crania
within the Indian subcontinent and uses the results to inform a univariate, bivariate, and multivariate comparison of Indian and other crania
(1) dry adult human crania
with no observable craniofacial abnormalities and no teeth,
The scientists applied the powerful methods of 3-D geometric morphometrics to compare the shape of the LB1 cranium (the skull minus the lower jaw) to many fossil humans, as well as a large sample of modern human crania
suffering from microcephaly and other pathological conditions.
With a collection of one thousand human skulls, Morton launched craniology in the United States under a European theoretical paradigm, sorting crania
into five racial groups: Caucasian, Mongolian, American, Malay, and Ethiopian.