cranial nerve


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cranial nerve

n.
Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.

cranial nerve

n
(Anatomy) any of the 12 paired nerves that have their origin in the brain and reach the periphery through natural openings in the skull

cra′nial nerve`


n.
any of the paired nerves arising from the brainstem and reaching the periphery through skull openings.
[1830–40]

cranial nerve

Any of the 12 pairs of nerves in humans and other mammals that connect the muscles and sensory organs of the head and upper chest directly to the brain. The cranial nerves include the optic nerve and the auditory nerve.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stemcranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem
nerve, nervus - any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
first cranial nerve, nervii olfactorii, olfactory nerve - a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
nervus opticus, optic nerve, optic tract, second cranial nerve - the cranial nerve that serves the retina
nervus oculomotorius, oculomotor, oculomotor nerve, third cranial nerve - supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye
fourth cranial nerve, trochlear, trochlear nerve, trochlearis - either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
fifth cranial nerve, nervus trigeminus, trigeminal, trigeminal nerve, trigeminus - the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
abducens, abducens nerve, abducent, abducent nerve, nervus abducens, sixth cranial nerve - a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
facial, facial nerve, nervus facialis, seventh cranial nerve - cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
acoustic nerve, auditory nerve, eighth cranial nerve, nervus vestibulocochlearis, vestibulocochlear nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
glossopharyngeal nerve, nervus glossopharyngeus, ninth cranial nerve - sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
nervus vagus, pneumogastric, pneumogastric nerve, tenth cranial nerve, vagus, vagus nerve, wandering nerve - a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
accessory nerve, eleventh cranial nerve, nervus accessorius, spinal accessory - arises from two sets of roots (cranial and spinal) that unite to form the nerve
hypoglossal, hypoglossal nerve, nervus hypoglosus, twelfth cranial nerve - supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
References in classic literature ?
Sherrington, by experiments on dogs, showed that many of the usual marks of emotion were present in their behaviour even when, by severing the spinal cord in the lower cervical region, the viscera were cut off from all communication with the brain, except that existing through certain cranial nerves. He mentions the various signs which "contributed to indicate the existence of an emotion as lively as the animal had ever shown us before the spinal operation had been made."* He infers that the physiological condition of the viscera cannot be the cause of the emotion displayed under such circumstances, and concludes: "We are forced back toward the likelihood that the visceral expression of emotion is SECONDARY to the cerebral action occurring with the psychical state....
Cranial nerve involvement were found in 68 (54.4%) of our patients while literature review revealed involvement of cranial nerves in 45 to 55% of the patients9,17.
Surrounding the cavernous sinus are important nerves called the cranial nerves because they originate from the brain within the cranium (skull bone).
Some authors believe that immediate administration of steroids at the onset of an attack might reduce permanent sequelae of OM, including residual weakness of the third cranial nerve and pupillary dysfunction (7).
The presence of Wave I shows normal cochlear function and the absence of other waves reveals that the lesion is very close to the root of the eight cranial nerve (9).
Knowledge of the cranial nerves is essential for students in various health professions, among others, because of its intricate structure and functional aspects (Dickson & Stephens, 2015).
03 Which other cranial nerve is it important to test the function of?
In this article, a patient who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and was diagnosed with RHS and VZV encephalitis is discussed.
Schwannomas often settle in the parapharyngeal space of the neck and mostly arise from the 10th cranial nerve. Schwannomas that settle in this region are usually encountered as medial neck masses, and schwannomas that originate from the cervical or brachial plexus as lateral neck masses (5).
On the other hand, ONB can cause cranial nerve palsy without orbital invasion.
A section of cranial nerve IV showed mononuclear lymphocytic infiltrate and mild myelin loss, while sections of the sciatic nerve showed inflammation-associated myelin loss.