Sherrington, by experiments on dogs, showed that many of the usual marks of emotion were present in their behaviour even when, by severing the spinal cord in the lower cervical region, the viscera were cut off from all communication with the brain, except that existing through certain cranial nerves
. He mentions the various signs which "contributed to indicate the existence of an emotion as lively as the animal had ever shown us before the spinal operation had been made."* He infers that the physiological condition of the viscera cannot be the cause of the emotion displayed under such circumstances, and concludes: "We are forced back toward the likelihood that the visceral expression of emotion is SECONDARY to the cerebral action occurring with the psychical state....
Cases relate to symptoms involving muscle weakness, pain, the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, the spinal cord and roots, the brainstem, the cranial nerves
, the cerebral hemispheres, and the cerebellum, basal nuclei, and hypothalamus.
The disease is usually rapidly progressive and may involve cranial nerves
and may even cause respiratory failure.
Surrounding the cavernous sinus are important nerves called the cranial nerves
because they originate from the brain within the cranium (skull bone).
The International Headache Society (IHS) defines ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) as recurrent attacks of headaches with migrainous characteristics, associated with the paresis of one or more ocular cranial nerves
and with the absence of any demonstrable intracranial lesion, other than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the affected nerve (1).
A wide variety of imaging modalities were used in past for image evaluation of the cranial nerves
. Pneumocephalography was the first cross-sectional imaging study used to demonstrate cranial nerves
Knowledge of the cranial nerves
is essential for students in various health professions, among others, because of its intricate structure and functional aspects (Dickson & Stephens, 2015).
Although the pathogenesis is not well known, it is suggested that VZV may reach nerve terminals by crossing the mucosa and indirectly infecting the IXth and Xth cranial nerves
following a laryngopharyngeal infection or VZV might spread via nerve anastomoses (1).
Cases which originate here arise from the last four cranial nerves
, namely, the n.glossopharyngeus, n.vagus, n.accessorius, and n.hypoglossus.
Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is an uncommon cranial nerve
palsy comparing to other commoner cranial nerves
such as 3rd, 6th, and 7th cranial nerves
Herpes zoster infection affects the sensory nerves of the thoracic dermatomes most often, followed by the cranial nerves
. (3,4,5) The incidence and severity of the disease increase substantially after age 60.
Further, case reports and series have noted higher rates of cranial neuropathy, such as facial palsy and paresthesia, among GBS patients with evidence of Zika virus infection, suggesting that the cranial nerves
may be targeted by either virus or antibody (3,6-9).