After the appearance of Franz Boas's 1912 "Changes in the Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants" (which negated the then-popular view that science could make meaningful determinations about race based on skull shapes and sizes), scientific attempts to identify essential racial characteristics shifted attention from craniometry
Professor Eske Willeslev, who holds positions both at St John's College, University of Cambridge, and the University of Copenhagen, and led the study, said: "Spirit Cave and Lagoa Santa were very controversial because they were identified as so-called 'Paleoamericans' based on craniometry
-- it was determined that the shape of their skulls was different to current day Native Americans.
Although molecular genetics has become the most reliable method for taxonomic studies, craniometry
remains an important tool for practical determination of sexes or geographical forms of mammal species as well as in ecological research and conservation biology (Pertoldi et al.
Smoker, "Craniovertebral junction: normal anatomy, craniometry
, and congenital anomalies," RadioGraphics, vol.
Indeed, in a series in which craniometry
, theories of ether, and telepathy are utilized alongside Darwinian evolutionary theory and bacteriology, it is only with hindsight that lines of more distinction can be drawn at all.
The CI is measured by craniometry
, a technique performed to complement visual inspection of the cranium (cranioscopy).
Late in the antebellum period, black activists Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Frances Harper began challenging notions of racial hierarchy suggested by craniometry
Cephalometry and craniometry
are used frequently to study skull growth in normal and pathological conditions.
and Biological Distance: Biocultural Continuity and Change at the Late-Woodland-Mississippian Interface.
The 'scientific racism' of the nineteenth century produced several offshoots of what Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould terms 'the mis-measure of man'; Craniometry
, craniology, phrenology--the measure of human skulls in an attempt to scientifically determine or prove the racial superiority of the Caucasian group over non-White population groups.
(20.) The racist arguments clothed in the methods of science during the nineteenth century were based primarily on craniometry
, the measurement of human skulls.
(33.) See generally Stephen Jay Gould, American Polygeny and Craniometry
Before Darwin." Blacks and Indians as Separate, Inferior Species, in THE "RACIAL" ECONOMY OF SCIENCE: TOWARD A DEMOCRATIC FUTURE 84, 111 14 (Sandra Harding ed., 1993); DOROTHY ROBERTS, FATAL INVENTION: HOW SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND BIG BUSINESS RE-CREATE RACE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 3543 (2011).