Mostly, perceived benefits of exercise have been examined cross-sectionally
. Benefits of exercise that women and girls mention most often include social interaction, decreased stress, and improved physical appearance, physical abilities, and psychological/emotional outlook (Brown, Brown, Miller, & Hansen, 2001; Hall, 1998; Jaffe, Lutter, Rex, et al., 1999; Kennedy et al., 1998; Sleap & Wormald, 2001).
However they do not relate to the experience of any actual individual or group; women bear children over time, not cross-sectionally
. In addition, cross-sectional fertility measures can be misleading in that falls in period fertility may be the result of delayed childbearing (tempo) rather than reduced parity (quantum) for any particular group of women.
For instance, it is possible to download a defect data table from inspection tools, before using the automated process controls to cross-sectionally
choose defect sites.
Nondiscretionary accruals are estimated cross-sectionally
using the modified Jones model.
These findings also indicate that not all schizophrenia patients will have a long enough prodromal phase to be identified as such within this phase, and that cross-sectionally
it is very difficult to pick out those who will develop schizophrenia among persons having more moderate problems like anxiety, depression, or sleeping disorders.
Our first conclusion is that the curvilinear pattern in the bond between young people and their parents (i.e., a relative deterioration and subsequent amelioration of this bond in the transition to adulthood), initially found cross-sectionally
in the 1991 sample, is fully confirmed for adolescent females (age range: 12-20 years) over a period of six years.
As in the other analysis, the rejection rate increases with the level of abnormal return and is higher when abnormal stock returns are assumed to be independent cross-sectionally
. The rejection rates for the Asia and Middle East region are similar to that of the Americas region.
(2.) Obviously fixed effects do not work if there is an independent variable that varies only cross-sectionally
, as does, for example, Green, Kim, and Yoon's distance variable.
ADAM provides drug-use data, both cross-sectionally
and longitudinally, for arrestee populations across the United States.
Few studies have explored racial differences in risk factors either cross-sectionally